Accompanying code examples of the book "Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks and Deep Learning: A Practical Guide with Applications in Python" by Sebastian Raschka. All code examples are released under the MIT license. If you find this content useful, please consider supporting the work by buying a copy of the book.

Other code examples and content are available on GitHub. The PDF and ebook versions of the book are available through Leanpub.

``````

In [1]:

%watermark -a 'Sebastian Raschka' -v -p tensorflow

``````
``````

Sebastian Raschka

CPython 3.6.1
IPython 6.0.0

tensorflow 1.2.0

``````

# Model Zoo -- (Classic) Perceptron

Implementation of the classic Perceptron by Frank Rosenblatt for binary classification (here: 0/1 class labels).

``````

In [2]:

##########################
### DATASET
##########################

import numpy as np

data = np.genfromtxt('../ch02_perceptron/perceptron_toydata.txt', delimiter='\t')
X, y = data[:, :2], data[:, 2]
y = y.astype(np.int)

print('Class label counts:', np.bincount(y))
print('X.shape:', X.shape)
print('y.shape:', y.shape)

# Shuffling & train/test split
shuffle_idx = np.arange(y.shape[0])
shuffle_rng = np.random.RandomState(123)
shuffle_rng.shuffle(shuffle_idx)
X, y = X[shuffle_idx], y[shuffle_idx]

X_train, X_test = X[shuffle_idx[:70]], X[shuffle_idx[70:]]
y_train, y_test = y[shuffle_idx[:70]], y[shuffle_idx[70:]]

# Normalize (mean zero, unit variance)
mu, sigma = X_train.mean(axis=0), X_train.std(axis=0)
X_train = (X_train - mu) / sigma
X_test = (X_test - mu) / sigma

``````
``````

Class label counts: [50 50]
X.shape: (100, 2)
y.shape: (100,)

``````
``````

In [3]:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

plt.scatter(X_train[y_train==0, 0], X_train[y_train==0, 1], label='class 0', marker='o')
plt.scatter(X_train[y_train==1, 0], X_train[y_train==1, 1], label='class 1', marker='s')
plt.xlabel('feature 1')
plt.ylabel('feature 2')
plt.legend()
plt.show()

``````
``````

``````
``````

In [4]:

import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data

##########################
### SETTINGS
##########################

# Architecture
n_features = X.shape[1]

##########################
### GRAPH DEFINITION
##########################

g = tf.Graph()
with g.as_default():

# Graph Inputs
features = tf.placeholder(dtype=tf.float32,
shape=[None, n_features], name='features')
targets = tf.placeholder(dtype=tf.float32,
shape=[None, 1], name='targets')

# Model Parameters
weights = tf.Variable(tf.zeros(shape=[n_features, 1],
dtype=tf.float32), name='weights')
bias = tf.Variable([[0.]], dtype=tf.float32, name='bias')

# Forward Pass
linear = tf.add(tf.matmul(features, weights), bias, name='linear')
ones = tf.ones(shape=tf.shape(linear))
zeros = tf.zeros(shape=tf.shape(linear))
prediction = tf.where(condition=tf.less(linear, 0.),
x=zeros,
y=ones,
name='prediction')

# Backward Pass
errors = targets - prediction
tf.reshape(errors * features, (n_features, 1)),
name='weight_update')
name='bias_update')

train = tf.group(weight_update, bias_update, name='train')

saver = tf.train.Saver(name='saver')

##########################
### TRAINING & EVALUATION
##########################

with tf.Session(graph=g) as sess:

sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer())

for epoch in range(5):
for example, target in zip(X_train, y_train):
feed_dict = {'features:0': example.reshape(-1, n_features),
'targets:0': target.reshape(-1, 1)}
_ = sess.run(['train'], feed_dict=feed_dict)

w, b = sess.run(['weights:0', 'bias:0'])
print('Model parameters:\n')
print('Weights:\n', w)
print('Bias:', b)

saver.save(sess, save_path='perceptron')

pred = sess.run('prediction:0', feed_dict={features: X_train})
errors = np.sum(pred.reshape(-1) != y_train)
print('\nNumber of training errors:', errors)

``````
``````

Model parameters:

Weights:
[[ 2.02931881]
[ 0.5932976 ]]
Bias: [[-1.]]

Number of training errors: 0

``````
``````

In [5]:

##########################
### 2D Decision Boundary
##########################

x_min = -2
y_min = ( -(w[0] * x_min) / w[1]
-(b[0] / w[1]) )

x_max = 2
y_max = ( -(w[0] * x_max) / w[1]
-(b[0] / w[1]) )

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 2, sharex=True, figsize=(7, 3))

ax[0].plot([x_min, x_max], [y_min, y_max])
ax[1].plot([x_min, x_max], [y_min, y_max])

ax[0].scatter(X_train[y_train==0, 0], X_train[y_train==0, 1], label='class 0', marker='o')
ax[0].scatter(X_train[y_train==1, 0], X_train[y_train==1, 1], label='class 1', marker='s')

ax[1].scatter(X_test[y_test==0, 0], X_test[y_test==0, 1], label='class 0', marker='o')
ax[1].scatter(X_test[y_test==1, 0], X_test[y_test==1, 1], label='class 1', marker='s')

ax[1].legend(loc='upper left')
plt.show()

``````
``````

``````