Table of Contents

1. Before Getting Started

2. Create a Custom Calculator

3. What is a Computer Langugage?

4. Quiz Games and If Statements.

5. Guessing Games with Random Numbers and Loops.

  1. Introduction to Graphics.
  2. Back to Looping.
  3. Introduction to Animation.
  4. Functions. 10.Controllers and Graphics.
  5. Bitmapped Graphics and Sound.
  6. Introduction to Classes.
  7. Libraries and Modules.
  8. Searching.
  9. Array-Backed Grids.
  10. Sorting.
  11. Exceptions.
  12. Recursion.
  13. Formatting.
  14. Labs.
  15. Appendix A: Example code and Programs.
  16. Appendix B: Sample Tests.
  17. Appendix C: Worksheets
  18. Appendix D: Version Control.
  19. What's next?

Before Getting Started

This is some text

1.1 Introduction


Create a Custom Calculator

What is a Computer Language?

Here's some more text.

Guessing Games with Random Numbers and Loops

For Loops

Let's see what python has to say about the "for loop"!

In [3]:

The "for" statement

The "for" statement is used to iterate over the elements of a sequence
(such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:

   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite
                ["else" ":" suite]

The expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable
object.  An iterator is created for the result of the
"expression_list".  The suite is then executed once for each item
provided by the iterator, in the order returned by the iterator.  Each
item in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules
for assignments (see *Assignment statements*), and then the suite is
executed.  When the items are exhausted (which is immediately when the
sequence is empty or an iterator raises a "StopIteration" exception),
the suite in the "else" clause, if present, is executed, and the loop

A "break" statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop
without executing the "else" clause's suite.  A "continue" statement
executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and continues
with the next item, or with the "else" clause if there is no next

The for-loop makes assignments to the variables(s) in the target list.
This overwrites all previous assignments to those variables including
those made in the suite of the for-loop:

   for i in range(10):
       i = 5             # this will not affect the for-loop
                         # because i will be overwritten with the next
                         # index in the range

Names in the target list are not deleted when the loop is finished,
but if the sequence is empty, they will not have been assigned to at
all by the loop.  Hint: the built-in function "range()" returns an
iterator of integers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal's "for i
:= a to b do"; e.g., "list(range(3))" returns the list "[0, 1, 2]".

Note: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the
  loop (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists).  An
  internal counter is used to keep track of which item is used next,
  and this is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has
  reached the length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means
  that if the suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the
  sequence, the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of
  the current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the
  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the
  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.
  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a
  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,

     for x in a[:]:
         if x < 0: a.remove(x)

Related help topics: break, continue, while


"for" target_object "in" expression_list ":" "body of the loop"

Points of Interest:

  • 1. Target_object ; Any Python object:

    • variable
    • string
    • tuple
    • list
  • 2. Expression_list ; is eval only once.

    • When eval; yields an iterable object.

    • Consequently; An "iterator" is created.

  • 3. Loop Body / Suit ; is executed once for each item, provided by the iterator.

    • Performs nessecery ops on expressions within the loop body, mainly assignments.

    • When the items are exhausted, the iterator raises a "StopIteration" exception.

    • The suite moves to "else" clause, if present, is executed, and the loop terminates.

In [7]:
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range() function

The python

In [11]:

Syntax: range( start, stop, stepsize ) -> range object.

# a simple example
for i in range(5):
    print("Hello Again!")
print("Ok bye!")

Help on class range in module builtins:

class range(object)
 |  range(stop) -> range object
 |  range(start, stop[, step]) -> range object
 |  Return an object that produces a sequence of integers from start (inclusive)
 |  to stop (exclusive) by step.  range(i, j) produces i, i+1, i+2, ..., j-1.
 |  start defaults to 0, and stop is omitted!  range(4) produces 0, 1, 2, 3.
 |  These are exactly the valid indices for a list of 4 elements.
 |  When step is given, it specifies the increment (or decrement).
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  __contains__(self, key, /)
 |      Return key in self.
 |  __eq__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self==value.
 |  __ge__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>=value.
 |  __getattribute__(self, name, /)
 |      Return getattr(self, name).
 |  __getitem__(self, key, /)
 |      Return self[key].
 |  __gt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self>value.
 |  __hash__(self, /)
 |      Return hash(self).
 |  __iter__(self, /)
 |      Implement iter(self).
 |  __le__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<=value.
 |  __len__(self, /)
 |      Return len(self).
 |  __lt__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self<value.
 |  __ne__(self, value, /)
 |      Return self!=value.
 |  __new__(*args, **kwargs) from builtins.type
 |      Create and return a new object.  See help(type) for accurate signature.
 |  __reduce__(...)
 |      helper for pickle
 |  __repr__(self, /)
 |      Return repr(self).
 |  __reversed__(...)
 |      Return a reverse iterator.
 |  count(...)
 |      rangeobject.count(value) -> integer -- return number of occurrences of value
 |  index(...)
 |      rangeobject.index(value, [start, [stop]]) -> integer -- return index of value.
 |      Raise ValueError if the value is not present.
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data descriptors defined here:
 |  start
 |  step
 |  stop

Hello Again!
Hello Again!
Hello Again!
Hello Again!
Hello Again!
Ok bye!