# Data Analysis and Machine Learning: Linear Regression and more Advanced Regression Analysis

Morten Hjorth-Jensen, Department of Physics, University of Oslo and Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University

Date: Nov 21, 2017

## Regression analysis, overarching aims

Regression modeling deals with the description of the sampling distribution of a given random variable $y$ varies as function of another variable or a set of such variables $\hat{x} =[x_0, x_1,\dots, x_p]^T$. The first variable is called the dependent, the outcome or the response variable while the set of variables $\hat{x}$ is called the independent variable, or the predictor variable or the explanatory variable.

A regression model aims at finding a likelihood function $p(y\vert \hat{x})$, that is the conditional distribution for $y$ with a given $\hat{x}$. The estimation of $p(y\vert \hat{x})$ is made using a data set with

• $n$ cases $i = 0, 1, 2, \dots, n-1$

• Response (dependent or outcome) variable $y_i$ with $i = 0, 1, 2, \dots, n-1$

• $p$ Explanatory (independent or predictor) variables $\hat{x}_i=[x_{i0}, x_{i1}, \dots, x_{ip}]$ with $i = 0, 1, 2, \dots, n-1$

The goal of the regression analysis is to extract/exploit relationship between $y_i$ and $\hat{x}_i$ in or to infer causal dependencies, approximations to the likelihood functions, functional relationships and to make predictions .

## General linear models

Before we proceed let us study a case from linear algebra where we aim at fitting a set of data $\hat{y}=[y_0,y_1,\dots,y_{n-1}]$. We could think of these data as a result of an experiment or a complicated numerical experiment. These data are functions of a series of variables $\hat{x}=[x_0,x_1,\dots,x_{n-1}]$, that is $y_i = y(x_i)$ with $i=0,1,2,\dots,n-1$. The variables $x_i$ could represent physical quantities like time, temperature, position etc. We assume that $y(x)$ is a smooth function.

Since obtaining these data points may not be trivial, we want to use these data to fit a function which can allow us to make predictions for values of $y$ which are not in the present set. The perhaps simplest approach is to assume we can parametrize our function in terms of a polynomial of degree $n-1$ with $n$ points, that is

$$y=y(x) \rightarrow y(x_i)=\tilde{y}_i+\epsilon_i=\sum_{j=0}^{n-1} \beta_i x_i^j+\epsilon_i,$$

where $\epsilon_i$ is the error in our approximation.

## Rewriting the fitting procedure as a linear algebra problem

For every set of values $y_i,x_i$ we have thus the corresponding set of equations

\begin{align*} y_0&=\beta_0+\beta_1x_0^1+\beta_2x_0^2+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_0^{n-1}+\epsilon_0\\ y_1&=\beta_0+\beta_1x_1^1+\beta_2x_1^2+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_1^{n-1}+\epsilon_1\\ y_2&=\beta_0+\beta_1x_2^1+\beta_2x_2^2+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_2^{n-1}+\epsilon_2\\ \dots & \dots \\ y_{n-1}&=\beta_0+\beta_1x_{n-1}^1+\beta_2x_{n-1}^2+\dots+\beta_1x_{n-1}^{n-1}+\epsilon_{n-1}.\\ \end{align*}

## Rewriting the fitting procedure as a linear algebra problem, follows

Defining the vectors

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$$\hat{\epsilon} = [\epsilon_0,\epsilon_1, \epsilon_2,\dots, \epsilon_{n-1}]^T,$$

and the matrix

$$\hat{X}= \begin{bmatrix} 1& x_{0}^1 &x_{0}^2& \dots & \dots &x_{0}^{n-1}\\ 1& x_{1}^1 &x_{1}^2& \dots & \dots &x_{1}^{n-1}\\ 1& x_{2}^1 &x_{2}^2& \dots & \dots &x_{2}^{n-1}\\ \dots& \dots &\dots& \dots & \dots &\dots\\ 1& x_{n-1}^1 &x_{n-1}^2& \dots & \dots &x_{n-1}^{n-1}\\ \end{bmatrix}$$

we can rewrite our equations as

$$\hat{y} = \hat{X}\hat{\beta}+\hat{\epsilon}.$$

## Generalizing the fitting procedure as a linear algebra problem

We are obviously not limited to the above polynomial. We could replace the various powers of $x$ with elements of Fourier series, that is, instead of $x_i^j$ we could have $\cos{(j x_i)}$ or $\sin{(j x_i)}$, or time series or other orthogonal functions. For every set of values $y_i,x_i$ we can then generalize the equations to

\begin{align*} y_0&=\beta_0x_{00}+\beta_1x_{01}+\beta_2x_{02}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{0n-1}+\epsilon_0\\ y_1&=\beta_0x_{10}+\beta_1x_{11}+\beta_2x_{12}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{1n-1}+\epsilon_1\\ y_2&=\beta_0x_{20}+\beta_1x_{21}+\beta_2x_{22}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{2n-1}+\epsilon_2\\ \dots & \dots \\ y_{i}&=\beta_0x_{i0}+\beta_1x_{i1}+\beta_2x_{i2}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{in-1}+\epsilon_i\\ \dots & \dots \\ y_{n-1}&=\beta_0x_{n-1,0}+\beta_1x_{n-1,2}+\beta_2x_{n-1,2}+\dots+\beta_1x_{n-1,n-1}+\epsilon_{n-1}.\\ \end{align*}

## Generalizing the fitting procedure as a linear algebra problem

We redefine in turn the matrix $\hat{X}$ as

$$\hat{X}= \begin{bmatrix} x_{00}& x_{01} &x_{02}& \dots & \dots &x_{0,n-1}\\ x_{10}& x_{11} &x_{12}& \dots & \dots &x_{1,n-1}\\ x_{20}& x_{21} &x_{22}& \dots & \dots &x_{2,n-1}\\ \dots& \dots &\dots& \dots & \dots &\dots\\ x_{n-1,0}& x_{n-1,1} &x_{n-1,2}& \dots & \dots &x_{n-1,n-1}\\ \end{bmatrix}$$

and without loss of generality we rewrite again our equations as

$$\hat{y} = \hat{X}\hat{\beta}+\hat{\epsilon}.$$

The left-hand side of this equation forms know. Our error vector $\hat{\epsilon}$ and the parameter vector $\hat{\beta}$ are our unknow quantities. How can we obtain the optimal set of $\beta_i$ values?

## Optimizing our parameters

We have defined the matrix $\hat{X}$

\begin{align*} y_0&=\beta_0x_{00}+\beta_1x_{01}+\beta_2x_{02}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{0n-1}+\epsilon_0\\ y_1&=\beta_0x_{10}+\beta_1x_{11}+\beta_2x_{12}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{1n-1}+\epsilon_1\\ y_2&=\beta_0x_{20}+\beta_1x_{21}+\beta_2x_{22}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{2n-1}+\epsilon_1\\ \dots & \dots \\ y_{i}&=\beta_0x_{i0}+\beta_1x_{i1}+\beta_2x_{i2}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{in-1}+\epsilon_1\\ \dots & \dots \\ y_{n-1}&=\beta_0x_{n-1,0}+\beta_1x_{n-1,2}+\beta_2x_{n-1,2}+\dots+\beta_1x_{n-1,n-1}+\epsilon_{n-1}.\\ \end{align*}

## Optimizing our parameters, more details

We well use this matrix to define the approximation $\hat{\tilde{y}}$ via the unknown quantity $\hat{\beta}$ as

$$\hat{\tilde{y}}= \hat{X}\hat{\beta},$$

and in order to find the optimal parameters $\beta_i$ instead of solving the above linear algebra problem, we define a function which gives a measure of the spread between the values $y_i$ (which represent hopefully the exact values) and the parametrized values $\tilde{y}_i$, namely

$$Q(\hat{\beta})=\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\left(y_i-\tilde{y}_i\right)^2=\left(\hat{y}-\hat{\tilde{y}}\right)^T\left(\hat{y}-\hat{\tilde{y}}\right),$$

or using the matrix $\hat{X}$ as

$$Q(\hat{\beta})=\left(\hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right)^T\left(\hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right).$$

## Interpretations and optimizing our parameters

The function

$$Q(\hat{\beta})=\left(\hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right)^T\left(\hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right),$$

can be linked to the variance of the quantity $y_i$ if we interpret the latter as the mean value of for example a numerical experiment. When linking below with the maximum likelihood approach below, we will indeed interpret $y_i$ as a mean value

$$y_{i}=\langle y_i \rangle = \beta_0x_{i,0}+\beta_1x_{i,1}+\beta_2x_{i,2}+\dots+\beta_{n-1}x_{i,n-1}+\epsilon_i,$$

where $\langle y_i \rangle$ is the mean value. Keep in mind also that till now we have treated $y_i$ as the exact value. Normally, the response (dependent or outcome) variable $y_i$ the outcome of a numerical experiment or another type of experiment and is thus only an approximation to the true value. It is then always accompanied by an error estimate, often limited to a statistical error estimate given by the standard deviation discussed earlier. In the discussion here we will treat $y_i$ as our exact value for the response variable.

In order to find the parameters $\beta_i$ we will then minimize the spread of $Q(\hat{\beta})$ by requiring

$$\frac{\partial Q(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \beta_j} = \frac{\partial }{\partial \beta_j}\left[ \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\left(y_i-\beta_0x_{i,0}-\beta_1x_{i,1}-\beta_2x_{i,2}-\dots-\beta_{n-1}x_{i,n-1}\right)^2\right]=0,$$

which results in

$$\frac{\partial Q(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \beta_j} = -2\left[ \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}x_{ij}\left(y_i-\beta_0x_{i,0}-\beta_1x_{i,1}-\beta_2x_{i,2}-\dots-\beta_{n-1}x_{i,n-1}\right)\right]=0,$$

or in a matrix-vector form as

$$\frac{\partial Q(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \hat{\beta}} = 0 = \hat{X}^T\left( \hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right).$$

## Interpretations and optimizing our parameters

We can rewrite

$$\frac{\partial Q(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \hat{\beta}} = 0 = \hat{X}^T\left( \hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right),$$

as

$$\hat{X}^T\hat{y} = \hat{X}^T\hat{X}\hat{\beta},$$

and if the matrix $\hat{X}^T\hat{X}$ is invertible we have the solution

$$\hat{\beta} =\left(\hat{X}^T\hat{X}\right)^{-1}\hat{X}^T\hat{y}.$$

## Interpretations and optimizing our parameters

The residuals $\hat{\epsilon}$ are in turn given by

$$\hat{\epsilon} = \hat{y}-\hat{\tilde{y}} = \hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta},$$

and with

$$\hat{X}^T\left( \hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right)= 0,$$

we have

$$\hat{X}^T\hat{\epsilon}=\hat{X}^T\left( \hat{y}-\hat{X}\hat{\beta}\right)= 0,$$

meaning that the solution for $\hat{\beta}$ is the one which minimizes the residuals. Later we will link this with the maximum likelihood approach.

## The $\chi^2$ function

Normally, the response (dependent or outcome) variable $y_i$ the outcome of a numerical experiment or another type of experiment and is thus only an approximation to the true value. It is then always accompanied by an error estimate, often limited to a statistical error estimate given by the standard deviation discussed earlier. In the discussion here we will treat $y_i$ as our exact value for the response variable.

Introducing the standard deviation $\sigma_i$ for each measurement $y_i$, we define now the $\chi^2$ function as

$$\chi^2(\hat{\beta})=\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\frac{\left(y_i-\tilde{y}_i\right)^2}{\sigma_i^2}=\left(\hat{y}-\hat{\tilde{y}}\right)^T\frac{1}{\hat{\Sigma^2}}\left(\hat{y}-\hat{\tilde{y}}\right),$$

where the matrix $\hat{\Sigma}$ is a diagonal matrix with $\sigma_i$ as matrix elements.

## The $\chi^2$ function

In order to find the parameters $\beta_i$ we will then minimize the spread of $\chi^2(\hat{\beta})$ by requiring

$$\frac{\partial \chi^2(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \beta_j} = \frac{\partial }{\partial \beta_j}\left[ \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\left(\frac{y_i-\beta_0x_{i,0}-\beta_1x_{i,1}-\beta_2x_{i,2}-\dots-\beta_{n-1}x_{i,n-1}}{\sigma_i}\right)^2\right]=0,$$

which results in

$$\frac{\partial \chi^2(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \beta_j} = -2\left[ \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\frac{x_{ij}}{\sigma_i}\left(\frac{y_i-\beta_0x_{i,0}-\beta_1x_{i,1}-\beta_2x_{i,2}-\dots-\beta_{n-1}x_{i,n-1}}{\sigma_i}\right)\right]=0,$$

or in a matrix-vector form as

$$\frac{\partial \chi^2(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \hat{\beta}} = 0 = \hat{A}^T\left( \hat{b}-\hat{A}\hat{\beta}\right).$$

where we have defined the matrix $\hat{A} =\hat{X}/\hat{\Sigma}$ with matrix elements $a_{ij} = x_{ij}/\sigma_i$ and the vector $\hat{b}$ with elements $b_i = y_i/\sigma_i$.

## The $\chi^2$ function

We can rewrite

$$\frac{\partial \chi^2(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \hat{\beta}} = 0 = \hat{A}^T\left( \hat{b}-\hat{A}\hat{\beta}\right),$$

as

$$\hat{A}^T\hat{b} = \hat{A}^T\hat{A}\hat{\beta},$$

and if the matrix $\hat{A}^T\hat{A}$ is invertible we have the solution

$$\hat{\beta} =\left(\hat{A}^T\hat{A}\right)^{-1}\hat{A}^T\hat{b}.$$

## The $\chi^2$ function

If we then introduce the matrix

$$\hat{H} = \hat{A}^T\hat{A},$$

we have then the following expression for the parameters $\beta_j$ (the matrix elements of $\hat{H}$ are $h_{ij}$)

$$\beta_j = \sum_{k=0}^{p-1}h_{jk}\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\frac{y_i}{\sigma_i}\frac{x_{ik}}{\sigma_i} = \sum_{k=0}^{p-1}h_{jk}\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}b_ia_{ik}$$

We state without proof the expression for the uncertainty in the parameters $\beta_j$ as

$$\sigma^2(\beta_j) = \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\sigma_i^2\left( \frac{\partial \beta_j}{\partial y_i}\right)^2,$$

resulting in

$$\sigma^2(\beta_j) = \left(\sum_{k=0}^{p-1}h_{jk}\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}a_{ik}\right)\left(\sum_{l=0}^{p-1}h_{jl}\sum_{m=0}^{n-1}a_{ml}\right) = h_{jj}!$$

## The $\chi^2$ function

The first step here is to approximate the function $y$ with a first-order polynomial, that is we write

$$y=y(x) \rightarrow y(x_i) \approx \beta_0+\beta_1 x_i.$$

By computing the derivatives of $\chi^2$ with respect to $\beta_0$ and $\beta_1$ show that these are given by

$$\frac{\partial \chi^2(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \beta_0} = -2\left[ \sum_{i=0}^{1}\left(\frac{y_i-\beta_0-\beta_1x_{i}}{\sigma_i^2}\right)\right]=0,$$

and

$$\frac{\partial \chi^2(\hat{\beta})}{\partial \beta_0} = -2\left[ \sum_{i=0}^{1}x_i\left(\frac{y_i-\beta_0-\beta_1x_{i}}{\sigma_i^2}\right)\right]=0.$$

## The $\chi^2$ function

We define then

$$\gamma = \sum_{i=0}^{1}\frac{1}{\sigma_i^2},$$

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$$\gamma_{xy} = \sum_{i=0}^{1}\frac{y_ix_{i}}{\sigma_i^2},$$

and show that

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$$\beta_1 = \frac{\gamma_{xy}\gamma-\gamma_x\gamma_y}{\gamma\gamma_{xx}-\gamma_x^2}.$$

The LSM suffers often from both being underdetermined and overdetermined in the unknown coefficients $\beta_i$. A better approach is to use the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method discussed below.

## The singular value decompostion

How can we use the singular value decomposition to find the parameters $\beta_j$? More details will come. We first note that a general $m\times n$ matrix $\hat{A}$ can be written in terms of a diagonal matrix $\hat{\Sigma}$ of dimensionality $n\times n$ and two orthognal matrices $\hat{U}$ and $\hat{V}$, where the first has dimensionality $m \times n$ and the last dimensionality $n\times n$. We have then

$$\hat{A} = \hat{U}\hat{\Sigma}\hat{V}$$