The goal of this assignment is to train a Word2Vec skip-gram model over Text8 data.

```
In [1]:
```# These are all the modules we'll be using later. Make sure you can import them
# before proceeding further.
%matplotlib inline
from __future__ import print_function
import collections
import math
import numpy as np
import os
import random
import tensorflow as tf
import zipfile
from matplotlib import pylab
from six.moves import range
from six.moves.urllib.request import urlretrieve
from sklearn.manifold import TSNE

Download the data from the source website if necessary.

```
In [2]:
```url = 'http://mattmahoney.net/dc/'
def maybe_download(filename, expected_bytes):
"""Download a file if not present, and make sure it's the right size."""
if not os.path.exists(filename):
filename, _ = urlretrieve(url + filename, filename)
statinfo = os.stat(filename)
if statinfo.st_size == expected_bytes:
print('Found and verified %s' % filename)
else:
print(statinfo.st_size)
raise Exception(
'Failed to verify ' + filename + '. Can you get to it with a browser?')
return filename
filename = maybe_download('text8.zip', 31344016)

```
```

Read the data into a string.

```
In [3]:
```def read_data(filename):
"""Extract the first file enclosed in a zip file as a list of words"""
with zipfile.ZipFile(filename) as f:
data = tf.compat.as_str(f.read(f.namelist()[0])).split()
return data
words = read_data(filename)
print('Data size %d' % len(words))

```
```

Build the dictionary and replace rare words with UNK token.

```
In [4]:
```vocabulary_size = 50000
def build_dataset(words):
count = [['UNK', -1]]
count.extend(collections.Counter(words).most_common(vocabulary_size - 1))
dictionary = dict()
for word, _ in count:
dictionary[word] = len(dictionary)
data = list()
unk_count = 0
for word in words:
if word in dictionary:
index = dictionary[word]
else:
index = 0 # dictionary['UNK']
unk_count = unk_count + 1
data.append(index)
count[0][1] = unk_count
reverse_dictionary = dict(zip(dictionary.values(), dictionary.keys()))
return data, count, dictionary, reverse_dictionary
data, count, dictionary, reverse_dictionary = build_dataset(words)
print('Most common words (+UNK)', count[:5])
print('Sample data', data[:10])
del words # Hint to reduce memory.

```
```

Let's display the internal variables to better understand their structure:

```
In [5]:
```print(data[:10])
print(count[:10])
print(dictionary.items()[:10])
print(reverse_dictionary.items()[:10])

```
```

Function to generate a training batch for the skip-gram model.

```
In [6]:
```data_index = 0
def generate_batch(batch_size, num_skips, skip_window):
global data_index
assert batch_size % num_skips == 0
assert num_skips <= 2 * skip_window
batch = np.ndarray(shape=(batch_size), dtype=np.int32)
labels = np.ndarray(shape=(batch_size, 1), dtype=np.int32)
span = 2 * skip_window + 1 # [ skip_window target skip_window ]
buffer = collections.deque(maxlen=span)
for _ in range(span):
buffer.append(data[data_index])
data_index = (data_index + 1) % len(data)
for i in range(batch_size // num_skips):
target = skip_window # target label at the center of the buffer
targets_to_avoid = [ skip_window ]
for j in range(num_skips):
while target in targets_to_avoid:
target = random.randint(0, span - 1)
targets_to_avoid.append(target)
batch[i * num_skips + j] = buffer[skip_window]
labels[i * num_skips + j, 0] = buffer[target]
buffer.append(data[data_index])
data_index = (data_index + 1) % len(data)
return batch, labels
print('data:', [reverse_dictionary[di] for di in data[:32]])
for num_skips, skip_window in [(2, 1), (4, 2)]:
data_index = 0
batch, labels = generate_batch(batch_size=16, num_skips=num_skips, skip_window=skip_window)
print('\nwith num_skips = %d and skip_window = %d:' % (num_skips, skip_window))
print(' batch:', [reverse_dictionary[bi] for bi in batch])
print(' labels:', [reverse_dictionary[li] for li in labels.reshape(16)])
for num_skips, skip_window in [(2, 1), (4, 2)]:
data_index = 1
batch, labels = generate_batch(batch_size=16, num_skips=num_skips, skip_window=skip_window)
print('\nwith num_skips = %d and skip_window = %d:' % (num_skips, skip_window))
print(' batch:', [reverse_dictionary[bi] for bi in batch])
print(' labels:', [reverse_dictionary[li] for li in labels.reshape(16)])

```
```

Note: the labels is a sliding random value of the word surrounding the words of the batch.

```
In [7]:
```print(batch)
print(labels)

```
```

Train a skip-gram model.

```
In [8]:
```batch_size = 128
embedding_size = 128 # Dimension of the embedding vector.
skip_window = 1 # How many words to consider left and right.
num_skips = 2 # How many times to reuse an input to generate a label.
# We pick a random validation set to sample nearest neighbors. here we limit the
# validation samples to the words that have a low numeric ID, which by
# construction are also the most frequent.
valid_size = 16 # Random set of words to evaluate similarity on.
valid_window = 100 # Only pick dev samples in the head of the distribution.
valid_examples = np.array(random.sample(range(valid_window), valid_size))
num_sampled = 64 # Number of negative examples to sample.
graph = tf.Graph()
with graph.as_default(), tf.device('/cpu:0'):
# Input data.
train_dataset = tf.placeholder(tf.int32, shape=[batch_size])
train_labels = tf.placeholder(tf.int32, shape=[batch_size, 1])
valid_dataset = tf.constant(valid_examples, dtype=tf.int32)
# Variables.
embeddings = tf.Variable(
tf.random_uniform([vocabulary_size, embedding_size], -1.0, 1.0))
softmax_weights = tf.Variable(
tf.truncated_normal([vocabulary_size, embedding_size],
stddev=1.0 / math.sqrt(embedding_size)))
softmax_biases = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([vocabulary_size]))
# Model.
# Look up embeddings for inputs.
embed = tf.nn.embedding_lookup(embeddings, train_dataset)
# Compute the softmax loss, using a sample of the negative labels each time.
loss = tf.reduce_mean(
tf.nn.sampled_softmax_loss(softmax_weights, softmax_biases, embed,
train_labels, num_sampled, vocabulary_size))
# Optimizer.
optimizer = tf.train.AdagradOptimizer(1.0).minimize(loss)
# Compute the similarity between minibatch examples and all embeddings.
# We use the cosine distance:
norm = tf.sqrt(tf.reduce_sum(tf.square(embeddings), 1, keep_dims=True))
normalized_embeddings = embeddings / norm
valid_embeddings = tf.nn.embedding_lookup(
normalized_embeddings, valid_dataset)
similarity = tf.matmul(valid_embeddings, tf.transpose(normalized_embeddings))

```
In [9]:
```num_steps = 100001
with tf.Session(graph=graph) as session:
tf.initialize_all_variables().run()
print('Initialized')
average_loss = 0
for step in range(num_steps):
batch_data, batch_labels = generate_batch(
batch_size, num_skips, skip_window)
feed_dict = {train_dataset : batch_data, train_labels : batch_labels}
_, l = session.run([optimizer, loss], feed_dict=feed_dict)
average_loss += l
if step % 2000 == 0:
if step > 0:
average_loss = average_loss / 2000
# The average loss is an estimate of the loss over the last 2000 batches.
print('Average loss at step %d: %f' % (step, average_loss))
average_loss = 0
# note that this is expensive (~20% slowdown if computed every 500 steps)
if step % 10000 == 0:
sim = similarity.eval()
for i in range(valid_size):
valid_word = reverse_dictionary[valid_examples[i]]
top_k = 8 # number of nearest neighbors
nearest = (-sim[i, :]).argsort()[1:top_k+1]
log = 'Nearest to %s:' % valid_word
for k in range(top_k):
close_word = reverse_dictionary[nearest[k]]
log = '%s %s,' % (log, close_word)
print(log)
final_embeddings = normalized_embeddings.eval()

```
```

This is what an embedding looks like:

```
In [10]:
```print(final_embeddings[0])

```
```

```
In [11]:
```print(np.sum(np.square(final_embeddings[0])))

```
```

```
In [12]:
```num_points = 400
tsne = TSNE(perplexity=30, n_components=2, init='pca', n_iter=5000)
two_d_embeddings = tsne.fit_transform(final_embeddings[1:num_points+1, :])

```
In [13]:
```def plot(embeddings, labels):
assert embeddings.shape[0] >= len(labels), 'More labels than embeddings'
pylab.figure(figsize=(15,15)) # in inches
for i, label in enumerate(labels):
x, y = embeddings[i,:]
pylab.scatter(x, y)
pylab.annotate(label, xy=(x, y), xytext=(5, 2), textcoords='offset points',
ha='right', va='bottom')
pylab.show()
words = [reverse_dictionary[i] for i in range(1, num_points+1)]
plot(two_d_embeddings, words)

```
```

An alternative to skip-gram is another Word2Vec model called CBOW (Continuous Bag of Words). In the CBOW model, instead of predicting a context word from a word vector, you predict a word from the sum of all the word vectors in its context. Implement and evaluate a CBOW model trained on the text8 dataset.

For the continuous bag of words, the train inputs are slightly different from the skip-gram:

```
In [14]:
```data_index = 0
def generate_batch(batch_size, bag_window):
global data_index
span = 2 * bag_window + 1 # [ bag_window target bag_window ]
batch = np.ndarray(shape=(batch_size, span - 1), dtype=np.int32)
labels = np.ndarray(shape=(batch_size, 1), dtype=np.int32)
buffer = collections.deque(maxlen=span)
for _ in range(span):
buffer.append(data[data_index])
data_index = (data_index + 1) % len(data)
for i in range(batch_size):
# just for testing
buffer_list = list(buffer)
labels[i, 0] = buffer_list.pop(bag_window)
batch[i] = buffer_list
# iterate to the next buffer
buffer.append(data[data_index])
data_index = (data_index + 1) % len(data)
return batch, labels
print('data:', [reverse_dictionary[di] for di in data[:16]])
for bag_window in [1, 2]:
data_index = 0
batch, labels = generate_batch(batch_size=4, bag_window=bag_window)
print('\nwith bag_window = %d:' % (bag_window))
print(' batch:', [[reverse_dictionary[w] for w in bi] for bi in batch])
print(' labels:', [reverse_dictionary[li] for li in labels.reshape(4)])

```
```

`reduce_sum`

to sum the word vectors in the context:

```
In [15]:
```batch_size = 128
embedding_size = 128 # Dimension of the embedding vector.
###skip_window = 1 # How many words to consider left and right.
###num_skips = 2 # How many times to reuse an input to generate a label.
bag_window = 2 # How many words to consider left and right.
# We pick a random validation set to sample nearest neighbors. here we limit the
# validation samples to the words that have a low numeric ID, which by
# construction are also the most frequent.
valid_size = 16 # Random set of words to evaluate similarity on.
valid_window = 100 # Only pick dev samples in the head of the distribution.
valid_examples = np.array(random.sample(range(valid_window), valid_size))
num_sampled = 64 # Number of negative examples to sample.
graph = tf.Graph()
with graph.as_default(), tf.device('/cpu:0'):
# Input data.
train_dataset = tf.placeholder(tf.int32, shape=[batch_size, bag_window * 2])
train_labels = tf.placeholder(tf.int32, shape=[batch_size, 1])
valid_dataset = tf.constant(valid_examples, dtype=tf.int32)
# Variables.
embeddings = tf.Variable(
tf.random_uniform([vocabulary_size, embedding_size], -1.0, 1.0))
softmax_weights = tf.Variable(
tf.truncated_normal([vocabulary_size, embedding_size],
stddev=1.0 / math.sqrt(embedding_size)))
softmax_biases = tf.Variable(tf.zeros([vocabulary_size]))
# Model.
# Look up embeddings for inputs.
embeds = tf.nn.embedding_lookup(embeddings, train_dataset)
# Compute the softmax loss, using a sample of the negative labels each time.
loss = tf.reduce_mean(
tf.nn.sampled_softmax_loss(softmax_weights, softmax_biases, tf.reduce_sum(embeds, 1),
train_labels, num_sampled, vocabulary_size))
# Optimizer.
optimizer = tf.train.AdagradOptimizer(1.0).minimize(loss)
# Compute the similarity between minibatch examples and all embeddings.
# We use the cosine distance:
norm = tf.sqrt(tf.reduce_sum(tf.square(embeddings), 1, keep_dims=True))
normalized_embeddings = embeddings / norm
valid_embeddings = tf.nn.embedding_lookup(
normalized_embeddings, valid_dataset)
similarity = tf.matmul(valid_embeddings, tf.transpose(normalized_embeddings))

```
In [16]:
```num_steps = 100001
with tf.Session(graph=graph) as session:
tf.initialize_all_variables().run()
print('Initialized')
average_loss = 0
for step in range(num_steps):
batch_data, batch_labels = generate_batch(
batch_size, bag_window)
feed_dict = {train_dataset : batch_data, train_labels : batch_labels}
_, l = session.run([optimizer, loss], feed_dict=feed_dict)
average_loss += l
if step % 2000 == 0:
if step > 0:
average_loss = average_loss / 2000
# The average loss is an estimate of the loss over the last 2000 batches.
print('Average loss at step %d: %f' % (step, average_loss))
average_loss = 0
# note that this is expensive (~20% slowdown if computed every 500 steps)
if step % 10000 == 0:
sim = similarity.eval()
for i in range(valid_size):
valid_word = reverse_dictionary[valid_examples[i]]
top_k = 8 # number of nearest neighbors
nearest = (-sim[i, :]).argsort()[1:top_k+1]
log = 'Nearest to %s:' % valid_word
for k in range(top_k):
close_word = reverse_dictionary[nearest[k]]
log = '%s %s,' % (log, close_word)
print(log)
final_embeddings = normalized_embeddings.eval()

```
```

```
In [17]:
```num_points = 400
tsne = TSNE(perplexity=30, n_components=2, init='pca', n_iter=5000)
two_d_embeddings = tsne.fit_transform(final_embeddings[1:num_points+1, :])

```
In [18]:
```def plot(embeddings, labels):
assert embeddings.shape[0] >= len(labels), 'More labels than embeddings'
pylab.figure(figsize=(15,15)) # in inches
for i, label in enumerate(labels):
x, y = embeddings[i,:]
pylab.scatter(x, y)
pylab.annotate(label, xy=(x, y), xytext=(5, 2), textcoords='offset points',
ha='right', va='bottom')
pylab.show()
words = [reverse_dictionary[i] for i in range(1, num_points+1)]
plot(two_d_embeddings, words)

```
```

Some clusters are less obvious (like the standalone characters), but it clearly totaly works!

How does your CBOW model perform compared to the given Word2Vec model? (to be answered)

At the first sight, they look similar. The CBOW is a more compact.