Copyright 2016 Allen B. Downey

MIT License: https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT

```
In [1]:
```from __future__ import print_function, division
%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import random
import thinkstats2
import thinkplot

```
In [2]:
```import scipy.stats
def EvalNormalCdfInverse(p, mu=0, sigma=1):
return scipy.stats.norm.ppf(p, loc=mu, scale=sigma)

Here's the confidence interval for the estimated mean.

```
In [3]:
```EvalNormalCdfInverse(0.05, mu=90, sigma=2.5)

```
Out[3]:
```

```
In [4]:
```EvalNormalCdfInverse(0.95, mu=90, sigma=2.5)

```
Out[4]:
```

`normal.py`

provides a `Normal`

class that encapsulates what we know about arithmetic operations on normal distributions.

```
In [5]:
```from normal import Normal
dist = Normal(90, 7.5**2)
dist

```
Out[5]:
```

We can use it to compute the sampling distribution of the mean.

```
In [6]:
```dist_xbar = dist.Sum(9) / 9
dist_xbar.sigma

```
Out[6]:
```

And then compute a confidence interval.

```
In [7]:
```dist_xbar.Percentile(5), dist_xbar.Percentile(95)

```
Out[7]:
```

```
In [8]:
```def MakeExpoSamples(beta=2.0, iters=1000):
"""Generates samples from an exponential distribution.
beta: parameter
iters: number of samples to generate for each size
returns: list of samples
"""
samples = []
for n in [1, 10, 100]:
sample = [np.sum(np.random.exponential(beta, n))
for _ in range(iters)]
samples.append((n, sample))
return samples

This function generates normal probability plots for samples with various sizes.

```
In [9]:
```def NormalPlotSamples(samples, plot=1, ylabel=''):
"""Makes normal probability plots for samples.
samples: list of samples
label: string
"""
for n, sample in samples:
thinkplot.SubPlot(plot)
thinkstats2.NormalProbabilityPlot(sample)
thinkplot.Config(title='n=%d' % n,
legend=False,
xticks=[],
yticks=[],
xlabel='random normal variate',
ylabel=ylabel)
plot += 1

```
In [10]:
```thinkplot.PrePlot(num=3, rows=2, cols=3)
samples = MakeExpoSamples()
NormalPlotSamples(samples, plot=1,
ylabel='sum of expo values')

```
```

```
In [11]:
```def MakeLognormalSamples(mu=1.0, sigma=1.0, iters=1000):
"""Generates samples from a lognormal distribution.
mu: parmeter
sigma: parameter
iters: number of samples to generate for each size
returns: list of samples
"""
samples = []
for n in [1, 10, 100]:
sample = [np.sum(np.random.lognormal(mu, sigma, n))
for _ in range(iters)]
samples.append((n, sample))
return samples

```
In [12]:
```thinkplot.PrePlot(num=3, rows=2, cols=3)
samples = MakeLognormalSamples()
NormalPlotSamples(samples, ylabel='sum of lognormal values')

```
```

```
In [13]:
```def MakeParetoSamples(alpha=1.0, iters=1000):
"""Generates samples from a Pareto distribution.
alpha: parameter
iters: number of samples to generate for each size
returns: list of samples
"""
samples = []
for n in [1, 10, 100]:
sample = [np.sum(np.random.pareto(alpha, n))
for _ in range(iters)]
samples.append((n, sample))
return samples

```
In [14]:
```thinkplot.PrePlot(num=3, rows=2, cols=3)
samples = MakeParetoSamples()
NormalPlotSamples(samples, ylabel='sum of Pareto values')

```
```

If the random variates are correlated, that also violates the CLT, so the sums don't generally converge.

To generate correlated values, we generate correlated normal values and then transform to whatever distribution we want.

```
In [15]:
```def GenerateCorrelated(rho, n):
"""Generates a sequence of correlated values from a standard normal dist.
rho: coefficient of correlation
n: length of sequence
returns: iterator
"""
x = random.gauss(0, 1)
yield x
sigma = np.sqrt(1 - rho**2)
for _ in range(n-1):
x = random.gauss(x * rho, sigma)
yield x

```
In [16]:
```def GenerateExpoCorrelated(rho, n):
"""Generates a sequence of correlated values from an exponential dist.
rho: coefficient of correlation
n: length of sequence
returns: NumPy array
"""
normal = list(GenerateCorrelated(rho, n))
uniform = scipy.stats.norm.cdf(normal)
expo = scipy.stats.expon.ppf(uniform)
return expo

```
In [17]:
```def MakeCorrelatedSamples(rho=0.9, iters=1000):
"""Generates samples from a correlated exponential distribution.
rho: correlation
iters: number of samples to generate for each size
returns: list of samples
"""
samples = []
for n in [1, 10, 100]:
sample = [np.sum(GenerateExpoCorrelated(rho, n))
for _ in range(iters)]
samples.append((n, sample))
return samples

```
In [18]:
```thinkplot.PrePlot(num=3, rows=2, cols=3)
samples = MakeCorrelatedSamples()
NormalPlotSamples(samples, ylabel='sum of correlated exponential values')

```
```

```
In [19]:
```import first
live, firsts, others = first.MakeFrames()
delta = firsts.prglngth.mean() - others.prglngth.mean()
delta

```
Out[19]:
```

```
In [20]:
```def SamplingDistMean(data, n):
"""Computes the sampling distribution of the mean.
data: sequence of values representing the population
n: sample size
returns: Normal object
"""
mean, var = data.mean(), data.var()
dist = Normal(mean, var)
return dist.Sum(n) / n

Here are the sampling distributions for the means of the two groups under the null hypothesis.

```
In [21]:
```dist1 = SamplingDistMean(live.prglngth, len(firsts))
dist2 = SamplingDistMean(live.prglngth, len(others))

And the sampling distribution for the difference in means.

```
In [22]:
```dist_diff = dist1 - dist2
dist

```
Out[22]:
```

Under the null hypothesis, here's the chance of exceeding the observed difference.

```
In [23]:
```1 - dist_diff.Prob(delta)

```
Out[23]:
```

And the chance of falling below the negated difference.

```
In [24]:
```dist_diff.Prob(-delta)

```
Out[24]:
```

The sum of these probabilities is the two-sided p-value.

```
In [25]:
```def StudentCdf(n):
"""Computes the CDF correlations from uncorrelated variables.
n: sample size
returns: Cdf
"""
ts = np.linspace(-3, 3, 101)
ps = scipy.stats.t.cdf(ts, df=n-2)
rs = ts / np.sqrt(n - 2 + ts**2)
return thinkstats2.Cdf(rs, ps)

`HypothesisTest`

that uses permutation to estimate the sampling distribution of a correlation.

```
In [26]:
```import hypothesis
class CorrelationPermute(hypothesis.CorrelationPermute):
"""Tests correlations by permutation."""
def TestStatistic(self, data):
"""Computes the test statistic.
data: tuple of xs and ys
"""
xs, ys = data
return np.corrcoef(xs, ys)[0][1]

```
In [27]:
```def ResampleCorrelations(live):
"""Tests the correlation between birth weight and mother's age.
live: DataFrame for live births
returns: sample size, observed correlation, CDF of resampled correlations
"""
live2 = live.dropna(subset=['agepreg', 'totalwgt_lb'])
data = live2.agepreg.values, live2.totalwgt_lb.values
ht = CorrelationPermute(data)
p_value = ht.PValue()
return len(live2), ht.actual, ht.test_cdf

```
In [28]:
```n, r, cdf = ResampleCorrelations(live)
model = StudentCdf(n)
thinkplot.Plot(model.xs, model.ps, color='gray',
alpha=0.5, label='Student t')
thinkplot.Cdf(cdf, label='sample')
thinkplot.Config(xlabel='correlation',
ylabel='CDF',
legend=True, loc='lower right')

```
```

```
In [29]:
```t = r * np.sqrt((n-2) / (1-r**2))
p_value = 1 - scipy.stats.t.cdf(t, df=n-2)
print(r, p_value)

```
```

```
In [30]:
```def ChiSquaredCdf(n):
"""Discrete approximation of the chi-squared CDF with df=n-1.
n: sample size
returns: Cdf
"""
xs = np.linspace(0, 25, 101)
ps = scipy.stats.chi2.cdf(xs, df=n-1)
return thinkstats2.Cdf(xs, ps)

```
In [31]:
```data = [8, 9, 19, 5, 8, 11]
dt = hypothesis.DiceChiTest(data)
p_value = dt.PValue(iters=1000)
n, chi2, cdf = len(data), dt.actual, dt.test_cdf
model = ChiSquaredCdf(n)
thinkplot.Plot(model.xs, model.ps, color='gray',
alpha=0.3, label='chi squared')
thinkplot.Cdf(cdf, label='sample')
thinkplot.Config(xlabel='chi-squared statistic',
ylabel='CDF',
loc='lower right')

```
```

And then we can use the analytic distribution to compute p-values.

```
In [32]:
```p_value = 1 - scipy.stats.chi2.cdf(chi2, df=n-1)
print(chi2, p_value)

```
```

**Exercise:** In Section 5.4, we saw that the distribution of adult weights is approximately lognormal. One possible explanation is that the weight a person gains each year is proportional to their current weight. In that case, adult weight is the product of a large number of multiplicative factors:

w = w0 f1 f2 ... fn

where w is adult weight, w0 is birth weight, and fi is the weight gain factor for year i.

The log of a product is the sum of the logs of the factors:

logw = logw0 + logf1 + logf2 + ... + logfn

So by the Central Limit Theorem, the distribution of logw is approximately normal for large n, which implies that the distribution of w is lognormal.

To model this phenomenon, choose a distribution for f that seems reasonable, then generate a sample of adult weights by choosing a random value from the distribution of birth weights, choosing a sequence of factors from the distribution of f, and computing the product. What value of n is needed to converge to a lognormal distribution?

```
In [33]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [34]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [35]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [36]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

**Exercise:** In Section 14.6 we used the Central Limit Theorem to find the sampling distribution of the difference in means, δ, under the null hypothesis that both samples are drawn from the same population.

We can also use this distribution to find the standard error of the estimate and confidence intervals, but that would only be approximately correct. To be more precise, we should compute the sampling distribution of δ under the alternate hypothesis that the samples are drawn from different populations.

Compute this distribution and use it to calculate the standard error and a 90% confidence interval for the difference in means.

```
In [37]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [38]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [39]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [40]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

**Exercise:** In a recent paper, Stein et al. investigate the effects of an intervention intended to mitigate gender-stereotypical task allocation within student engineering teams.

Before and after the intervention, students responded to a survey that asked them to rate their contribution to each aspect of class projects on a 7-point scale.

Before the intervention, male students reported higher scores for the programming aspect of the project than female students; on average men reported a score of 3.57 with standard error 0.28. Women reported 1.91, on average, with standard error 0.32.

Compute the sampling distribution of the gender gap (the difference in means), and test whether it is statistically significant. Because you are given standard errors for the estimated means, you don’t need to know the sample size to figure out the sampling distributions.

After the intervention, the gender gap was smaller: the average score for men was 3.44 (SE 0.16); the average score for women was 3.18 (SE 0.16). Again, compute the sampling distribution of the gender gap and test it.

Finally, estimate the change in gender gap; what is the sampling distribution of this change, and is it statistically significant?

```
In [41]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [42]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [43]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [44]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [45]:
``````
# Solution goes here
```

```
In [ ]:
```