*Complete and hand in this completed worksheet (including its outputs and any supporting code outside of the worksheet) with your assignment submission. For more details see the assignments page on the course website.*

The kNN classifier consists of two stages:

- During training, the classifier takes the training data and simply remembers it
- During testing, kNN classifies every test image by comparing to all training images and transfering the labels of the k most similar training examples
- The value of k is cross-validated

In this exercise you will implement these steps and understand the basic Image Classification pipeline, cross-validation, and gain proficiency in writing efficient, vectorized code.

```
In [1]:
```# Run some setup code for this notebook.
import random
import numpy as np
from cs231n.data_utils import load_CIFAR10
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# This is a bit of magic to make matplotlib figures appear inline in the notebook
# rather than in a new window.
%matplotlib inline
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (10.0, 8.0) # set default size of plots
plt.rcParams['image.interpolation'] = 'nearest'
plt.rcParams['image.cmap'] = 'gray'
# Some more magic so that the notebook will reload external python modules;
# see http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1907993/autoreload-of-modules-in-ipython
%load_ext autoreload
%autoreload 2

```
In [2]:
```# Load the raw CIFAR-10 data.
cifar10_dir = 'cs231n/datasets/cifar-10-batches-py'
X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test = load_CIFAR10(cifar10_dir)
# As a sanity check, we print out the size of the training and test data.
print 'Training data shape: ', X_train.shape
print 'Training labels shape: ', y_train.shape
print 'Test data shape: ', X_test.shape
print 'Test labels shape: ', y_test.shape

```
```

```
In [3]:
```# Visualize some examples from the dataset.
# We show a few examples of training images from each class.
classes = ['plane', 'car', 'bird', 'cat', 'deer', 'dog', 'frog', 'horse', 'ship', 'truck']
num_classes = len(classes)
samples_per_class = 7
for y, cls in enumerate(classes):
idxs = np.flatnonzero(y_train == y)
idxs = np.random.choice(idxs, samples_per_class, replace=False)
for i, idx in enumerate(idxs):
plt_idx = i * num_classes + y + 1
plt.subplot(samples_per_class, num_classes, plt_idx)
plt.imshow(X_train[idx].astype('uint8'))
plt.axis('off')
if i == 0:
plt.title(cls)
plt.show()

```
```

```
In [4]:
```# Subsample the data for more efficient code execution in this exercise
num_training = 5000
mask = range(num_training)
X_train = X_train[mask]
y_train = y_train[mask]
num_test = 500
mask = range(num_test)
X_test = X_test[mask]
y_test = y_test[mask]

```
In [5]:
```# Reshape the image data into rows
X_train = np.reshape(X_train, (X_train.shape[0], -1))
X_test = np.reshape(X_test, (X_test.shape[0], -1))
print X_train.shape, X_test.shape

```
```

```
In [6]:
```from cs231n.classifiers import KNearestNeighbor
# Create a kNN classifier instance.
# Remember that training a kNN classifier is a noop:
# the Classifier simply remembers the data and does no further processing
classifier = KNearestNeighbor()
classifier.train(X_train, y_train)

We would now like to classify the test data with the kNN classifier. Recall that we can break down this process into two steps:

- First we must compute the distances between all test examples and all train examples.
- Given these distances, for each test example we find the k nearest examples and have them vote for the label

Lets begin with computing the distance matrix between all training and test examples. For example, if there are **Ntr** training examples and **Nte** test examples, this stage should result in a **Nte x Ntr** matrix where each element (i,j) is the distance between the i-th test and j-th train example.

First, open `cs231n/classifiers/k_nearest_neighbor.py`

and implement the function `compute_distances_two_loops`

that uses a (very inefficient) double loop over all pairs of (test, train) examples and computes the distance matrix one element at a time.

```
In [7]:
```# Open cs231n/classifiers/k_nearest_neighbor.py and implement
# compute_distances_two_loops.
# Test your implementation:
dists = classifier.compute_distances_two_loops(X_test)
print dists.shape

```
```

```
In [8]:
```# We can visualize the distance matrix: each row is a single test example and
# its distances to training examples
plt.imshow(dists, interpolation='none')
plt.show()

```
```

**Inline Question #1:** Notice the structured patterns in the distance matrix, where some rows or columns are visible brighter. (Note that with the default color scheme black indicates low distances while white indicates high distances.)

- What in the data is the cause behind the distinctly bright rows?
- What causes the columns?

**Your Answer**: The intensity of a pixel is higher for images that are seperated by a large L2 Distance. For some images in the Test Set which are vastly different from any image in the Train Set, we observe bright rows.

Likewise for images in Train Set that are not near any image in the Test Set, we see bright columns.

```
In [9]:
```# Now implement the function predict_labels and run the code below:
# We use k = 1 (which is Nearest Neighbor).
y_test_pred = classifier.predict_labels(dists, k=1)
# Compute and print the fraction of correctly predicted examples
num_correct = np.sum(y_test_pred == y_test)
accuracy = float(num_correct) / num_test
print 'Got %d / %d correct => accuracy: %f' % (num_correct, num_test, accuracy)

```
```

You should expect to see approximately `27%`

accuracy. Now lets try out a larger `k`

, say `k = 5`

:

```
In [10]:
```y_test_pred = classifier.predict_labels(dists, k=5)
num_correct = np.sum(y_test_pred == y_test)
accuracy = float(num_correct) / num_test
print 'Got %d / %d correct => accuracy: %f' % (num_correct, num_test, accuracy)

```
```

You should expect to see a slightly better performance than with `k = 1`

.

```
In [11]:
```# Now lets speed up distance matrix computation by using partial vectorization
# with one loop. Implement the function compute_distances_one_loop and run the
# code below:
dists_one = classifier.compute_distances_one_loop(X_test)
# To ensure that our vectorized implementation is correct, we make sure that it
# agrees with the naive implementation. There are many ways to decide whether
# two matrices are similar; one of the simplest is the Frobenius norm. In case
# you haven't seen it before, the Frobenius norm of two matrices is the square
# root of the squared sum of differences of all elements; in other words, reshape
# the matrices into vectors and compute the Euclidean distance between them.
difference = np.linalg.norm(dists - dists_one, ord='fro')
print 'Difference was: %f' % (difference, )
if difference < 0.001:
print 'Good! The distance matrices are the same'
else:
print 'Uh-oh! The distance matrices are different'

```
```

```
In [12]:
```# Now implement the fully vectorized version inside compute_distances_no_loops
# and run the code
dists_two = classifier.compute_distances_no_loops(X_test)
# check that the distance matrix agrees with the one we computed before:
difference = np.linalg.norm(dists - dists_two, ord='fro')
print 'Difference was: %f' % (difference, )
if difference < 0.001:
print 'Good! The distance matrices are the same'
else:
print 'Uh-oh! The distance matrices are different'

```
```

```
In [13]:
```# Let's compare how fast the implementations are
def time_function(f, *args):
"""
Call a function f with args and return the time (in seconds) that it took to execute.
"""
import time
tic = time.time()
f(*args)
toc = time.time()
return toc - tic
two_loop_time = time_function(classifier.compute_distances_two_loops, X_test)
print 'Two loop version took %f seconds' % two_loop_time
one_loop_time = time_function(classifier.compute_distances_one_loop, X_test)
print 'One loop version took %f seconds' % one_loop_time
no_loop_time = time_function(classifier.compute_distances_no_loops, X_test)
print 'No loop version took %f seconds' % no_loop_time
# you should see significantly faster performance with the fully vectorized implementation

```
```

```
In [14]:
```num_folds = 5
k_choices = [1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 50, 100]
X_train_folds = np.array_split(X_train, num_folds)
y_train_folds = np.array_split(y_train, num_folds)
# A dictionary holding the accuracies for different values of k that we find
# when running cross-validation. After running cross-validation,
# k_to_accuracies[k] should be a list of length num_folds giving the different
# accuracy values that we found when using that value of k.
k_to_accuracies = {}
for k in k_choices:
k_to_accuracies[k] = []
for i in xrange(num_folds):
X_cross_test = X_train_folds[i]
y_cross_test = y_train_folds[i]
idx = [j for j in xrange(num_folds) if j != i]
X_cross_train = X_train_folds[0]
y_cross_train = y_train_folds[0]
num_cross_test = y_cross_test.shape[0]
for j in xrange(1, len(idx)):
X_cross_train = np.concatenate((X_cross_train, X_train_folds[idx[j]]))
y_cross_train = np.concatenate((y_cross_train, y_train_folds[idx[j]]))
classifier.train(X_cross_train, y_cross_train)
dists = classifier.compute_distances_no_loops(X_cross_test)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict_labels(dists, k=k)
num_correct = np.sum(y_test_pred == y_cross_test)
accuracy = float(num_correct) / num_cross_test
k_to_accuracies[k].append(accuracy)
# Print out the computed accuracies
for k in sorted(k_to_accuracies):
for accuracy in k_to_accuracies[k]:
print 'k = %d, accuracy = %f' % (k, accuracy)

```
```

```
In [15]:
```# plot the raw observations
for k in k_choices:
accuracies = k_to_accuracies[k]
plt.scatter([k] * len(accuracies), accuracies)
# plot the trend line with error bars that correspond to standard deviation
accuracies_mean = np.array(
[np.mean(v) for k, v in sorted(k_to_accuracies.items())])
accuracies_std = np.array(
[np.std(v) for k, v in sorted(k_to_accuracies.items())])
plt.errorbar(k_choices, accuracies_mean, yerr=accuracies_std)
plt.title('Cross-validation on k')
plt.xlabel('k')
plt.ylabel('Cross-validation accuracy')
plt.show()

```
```

```
In [16]:
```# Based on the cross-validation results above, choose the best value for k,
# retrain the classifier using all the training data, and test it on the test
# data. You should be able to get above 28% accuracy on the test data.
best_k = 10
classifier = KNearestNeighbor()
classifier.train(X_train, y_train)
y_test_pred = classifier.predict(X_test, k=best_k)
# Compute and display the accuracy
num_correct = np.sum(y_test_pred == y_test)
accuracy = float(num_correct) / num_test
print 'Got %d / %d correct => accuracy: %f' % (num_correct, num_test, accuracy)

```
```