# exercise-checkpoint

CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises 1 Basics Exercise 1.1: The interpreter Open the Python interpeter. What happens when you input the following statements: (a) 3 + 1 (b) 3 3 (c) 2 ** 3 (d) "Hello, world!" Exercise 1.2: Scripts Now copy the above to a script, and save it as script1.py. What happens if you run the script? (try: python script1.py). Can you fix this (hint: use the print function) Exercise 1.3: More interpreter Explain the output of the following statements if executed subsequently: (a) ’py’ + ’thon’ (b) ’py’ 3 + ’thon’ (c) ’py’ - ’py’ (d) ’3’ + 3 (e) 3 ’3’ (f) a (g) a = 3 (h) a Exercise 1.4: Booleans Explain the output of the following statements: (a) 1 == 1 (b) 1 == True (c) 0 == True (d) 0 == False (e) 3 == 1 3 (f) (3 == 1) 3 (g) (3 == 3) 4 + 3 == 1 (h) 35 >= 44 Exercise 1.5: Integers Explain the output of the following statements: (a) 5 / 3 (b) 5 % 3 (c) 5.0 / 3 (d) 5 / 3.0 (e) 5.2 % 3 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (f) 2001 200 Exercise 1.6: Floats Explain the output of the following statements: (a) 2000.3 200 (compare with above) (b) 1.0 + 1.0 - 1.0 (c) 1.0 + 1.0e20 - 1.0e20 Exercise 1.7: Variables Write a script where the variable name holds a string with your name. Then, assuming for now your name is John Doe, have the script output: Hello, John Doe! (and obviously, do not use print "Hello, John Doe!". Exercise 1.8: Type casting Very often, one wants to “cast” variables of a certain type into another type. Suppose we have variable x = ’123’, but really we would like x to be an integer. This is easy to do in Python, just use desiredtype(x), e.g. int(x) to obtain an integer. Try the following and explain the output (a) float(123) (b) float(’123’) (c) float(’123.23’) (d) int(123.23) (e) int(’123.23’) (f) int(float(’123.23’)) (g) str(12) (h) str(12.2) (i) bool(’a’) (j) bool(0) (k) bool(0.1) 2 Control flow Disclaimer: Some of the following problems are inspired by problems from www.projecteuler.net. Have a look if you are interested, there are some great challenges and Python is an excellent tool for solving them. Exercise 2.1: Range Type range(5) in the interpreter, what does the interpreter return? So what does for i in range(5) mean? Let’s also find out whether the interpreter can help us understand the object ‘range(5)’ better. Type type(range(5)) in the interpreter. More on this soon! Exercise 2.2: For loops Use a for loop to: (a) Print the numbers 0 to 100 Page 2 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (b) Print the numbers 0 to 100 that are divisible by 7 (c) Print the numbers 1 to 100 that are divisible by 5 but not by 3 (d) Print for each of the numbers x = 2, . . . 20, all numbers that divide x, excluding 1 and x. Hence, for 18, it should print 2 3 6 9. Hint: see https://docs.python.org/2.7/library/functions.html#range. Exercise 2.3: Simple while loops Instead of using a for loop, use a while loop to: (a) Print the numbers 0 to 100 (b) Print the numbers 0 to 100 that are divisible by 7 Exercise 2.4: Hangman update 1 Let’s reconsider the hangman code we saw in class.1 We noted that the computer agent is not very good at guessing. Update the code such that the computer guesses ‘e’ first, and ’a’ second. Use the simulate.py script to see if this improves performance. Feel free to play around and see if you can do better! Exercise 2.5: While loops Use a while loop to find the first 20 numbers that are divisible by 5, 7 and 11, and print them Hint: store the number found so far in a variable. Pseudo-code: number found = 0 x = 11 while number found is less than 20: if x is divisible by 5, 7 and 11: print x increase number found by 1 increase x by 1 Exercise 2.6: More while loops The smallest number that is divisible by 2, 3 and 4 is 12. Find the smallest number that is divisible by all integers between 1 and 10. Exercise 2.7: Collatz sequence A Collatz sequence is formed as follows: We start with some number x0, and we find the next number in the sequence by xi+1 = ( xi/2 if xi is even 3xi + 1 if xi is odd If xi = 1, we stop iterating and have found the full sequence. For example, if we start with x0 = 5, we obtain the sequence: 5 16 8 4 2 1 It is conjectured, though not proven, that every chain eventually ends at 1. Print the Collatz sequence starting at x0 = 103. 1To obtain the Hangman code, either use \$ git clone https://github.com/schmit/hangman.git (if you have git / use Cloud9) or dowload the code directly: https://github.com/schmit/hangman/archive/master.zip Page 3 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises 3 Functions Exercise 3.1: Hello (a) Write a function hello_world that prints ’Hello, world!’ (b) Write a function hello_name(name) that prints ’Hello, name!’ where name is a string. (c) Explain the difference between the print and return keywords. What would change if instead of print you would use return? Exercise 3.2: Polynomial Write a function that evaluates the polynomial 3x 2 − x + 2. Exercise 3.3: Maximum Write a function my_max(x,y) that returns the maximum of x and y. Do not use the max function, but use if instead in following two ways: (a) Use both if and else. (b) Use if but not else (nor elif). Exercise 3.4: Primes (a) Write a function is_prime(n) that returns True only if n is prime. (b) Note that apart from 2 and 3, all primes are of the form 6k ± 1 (though not all numbers of the form 6k ± 1 are prime of course). Using this, we can improve the computation time by a factor 3. Update your function to use this. (c) Write a function that returns all primes up to n. (d) Write a function that returns the first n primes. Exercise 3.5: Root finding Suppose f is a continuous function and f(a) < 0 and f(b) > 0 for some known a and b. For simplicity, assume a < b. Then, there must exist some c such that f(c) = 0. (a) Write a function root(f, a, b) that takes a function f and two floats a and b and returns the root c. Hint: check the sign at the midpoint of the interval. (b) Remove the assumption that a < b, and that f(a) < 0 and f(b) > 0, if your current code relies on them. (c) Add a check that prints ’function evals have same sign’ if f(a) > 0 and f(b) > 0 or if f(a) < 0 and f(b) < 0. 4 Lists Exercise 4.1: Short questions (a) Write a function that prints the elements of a list (b) Write a function that prints the elements of a list in reverse (c) Write your own implementation of the len function that returns the number of elements in a list. Exercise 4.2: Copying lists (a) Create a list a with some entries. Page 4 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (b) Now set b = a (c) Change b[1] (d) What happened to a? (e) Now set c = a[:] (f) Change c[2] (g) What happened to a? Now create a function set_first_elem_to_zero(l) that takes a list, sets its first entry to zero, and returns the list. What happens to the original list? Exercise 4.3: Lists of lists What is the difference between a and b: a = [[]] * 3 b = [[] for _ in xrange(3)] Exercise 4.4: Lists and functions Write a function that takes a list and an index, and sets the value of the list at the given index to 0. Exercise 4.5: Primes In Section 3 you wrote a function that prints all primes up to n, and a function that prints the first n primes. Update these functions such that they return lists instead. Exercise 4.6: List comprehensions Let i, j = 1, . . . , n (a) Generate a list with elements [i,j]. (b) Generate a list with elements [i,j] with i < j (c) Generate a list with elements i + j with both i and j prime and i > j. (d) Write a function that evaluates an arbitrary polynomial a0 + a1x + a2x 2 + . . . + anx n using a list comprehension, where you are given x and a list with coefficients coefs (hint: use enumerate) Exercise 4.7: Filter In lecture we have seen how to implement map using list comprehensions. Implement filter using list comprehensions. Name your functions myfilter so you can compare with Python’s standard filter. Exercise 4.8: Flatten a list of lists Consider having a list with lists as elements, e.g. [[1,3], [3,6]]. Write a function that takes such a list, and returns a list with as elements the elements of the sublists, e.g. [1, 3, 3, 6]. Exercise 4.9: Finding the longest word Write a function that returns the longest word in a variable text that contains a sentence. While text may contain punctuation, these should not be taken into account. What happens with ties? As an example, consider: “Hello, how was the football match earlier today???” Exercise 4.10: Collatz sequence, part 2 Recall the Collatz sequence problem from Section 1. Our goal is to find the number n < 1, 000, 000 that leads to the longest Collatz sequence. (a) Write a function that for any n, returns its Collatz sequence as a list Page 5 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (b) Write a function that finds the integer x that leads to the longest Collatz sequence with x < n. Exercise 4.11: Pivots Write a function that takes a value x and a list ys, and returns a list that contains the value x and all elements of ys such that all values y in ys that are smaller than x come first, then we element x and then the rest of the values in ys For example, the output of f(3, [6, 4, 1, 7]) should be [1, 3, 6, 4, 7] Exercise 4.12: Prime challenge Write the function primes(n) that return a list with all prime numbers up to n using three (or less) lines of code. Hint 1: Use lambda functions and list comprehensions. Hint 2: Use the first two lines to define two helper (lambda) functions. 5 Tuples Exercise 5.1: Swapping two values Suppose you have two variables: a and b. Now you want to set a equal to the value of b and at the same time set b equal to the value of a. The following obviously does not work a = b b = a so in some languages, you need to define a third variable like this t = a a = b b = t However, in Python you don’t need to do this. How can you swap a and b in one line? Exercise 5.2: Zip Suppose we have two lists, x and y that give the x and y coordinates of a set of points. Create a list with the coordinates (x,y) as a tuple. Hint: Find out about the zip function. You have decided that actually, you need the two seperate lists, but unfortunately, you have thrown them away. How can we use zip to unzip the list of tuples to get two lists again? Exercise 5.3: Distances Suppose we have two vectors, x and y, stored as tuples with n elements. Implement functions that compute the l1 and l2 distances between x and y. Note that n is not explicitly given. 6 Dictionaries Exercise 6.1: Printing a dictionary Write a function that prints key-value pairs of a dictionary. Exercise 6.2: Histogram Write a function that takes a list, and returns a dictionary with keys the elements of the list and as value the number of occurances of that element in the list. After you are done, look up ‘python collections counter’ in Google. Could you use a counter instead? Page 6 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises Exercise 6.3: Get method Dictionaries have a get method, which takes a key and a default value. If the key is in the dictionary, it returns the value, otherwise, it returns the default value. Rewrite your code from the previous problem to make use of this get method. Exercise 6.4: Random text generator In this question we will start implementing a random text generator. The generated phrases somewhat resemble English, but are usually nonsense. Next week, after we learn about file I/O, we are ready to complete the code. To generate sentences, we first construct a so-called Markov chain based on actual text data. This is a very basic language model. We can then sample paths from this Markov chain to create new phrases. This is actually easier than it sounds: A Markov chain consists of states, and transition probabilities between states: i.e. when I am in state A, what is the probability that I’ll go to state B? We focus on the simple case where the state will be the current word. Consider the example sentence ‘the fire and the wind.’ Then, the states that we move through are BEGIN → the → fire → and → the → wind. → END where ‘BEGIN’ and ‘END’ are special states for the beginning and the end of the sentence. To find the transition probabilities, we go over a large body of text and record current word and the next word. In the above example, ‘BEGIN’ is followed by ‘the’, and ‘the’ is followed by ‘fire’ and ‘wind’. We won’t be computing actual probabilities. Instead, we create a dictionary that, for every word, contains all the words that follow it. To generate a phrase, we start at the ‘BEGIN’ state, and pick randomly one word from the list of words that follows the ‘BEGIN’ state. Then we look up which words follow that word, and again pick one word at random, until we hit the ‘END’ state, which signals that we are done. Before you get started, download the starter code by using \$ git clone https://github.com/schmit/Markov-chain-startercode.git (if you have git / use Cloud9) or dowload the code directly: https://github.com/schmit/Markov-chain-startercode/archive/master.zip Then • Implement the process line function, which takes a line as input, and returns a list with tuples with the current state, and the next state. • Implement the process textfile function, which loops over text, calls process line to extract the transitions, and adds these to a dictionary. For now, do not worry about reading data from a file, the lines are given as elements of the list f. • Implement the generate line function, which generates random phrases based on a dictionary with transitions. See markov.py for a more detailed description of each function. To run the code, use python markov.py . Since we are not using any files yet, replace

with a random word. Exercise 6.5: Vector functions Let’s implement some vector functions. There are two types of vectors, normal or dense vectors, which we can represent using lists. For sparse vectors, where many of the elements are zero, this is inefficient. Instead, we use a dictionary with keys the indices of non-zero values, and then the value corresponding to the key is the value of the vector at that index. Hence, the vector [1, 2, 4] can be stored as a list: [1, 2, 4] or as a dictionary {0:1, 1: 2, 2: 4}. Page 7 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (a) Write a function that adds two (dense) vectors (b) Write a function that multiplies (i.e. inner product) two (dense) vectors (c) Write a function that adds two sparse vectors (d) Write a function that multiplies two sparse vectors (e) Write a function that adds a sparse vector and a dense vector (f) Write a function that multiplies a sparse vector and a dense vector Exercise 6.6: Reverse look-up Dictionaries are made to look up values by keys. Suppose however, we want to find the key that is associated with some value. Write a function that takes a dictionary and a value, and returns the key associated with this value. What challenges do you face? How would you deal with those challenges? 7 File I/O Exercise 7.1: Open a file Write a function that opens a file (input: filename), and prints the file line by line. Exercise 7.2: Wordcount On the course website you can find a text file containing the complete works of William Shapespeare. (a) Find the 20 most common words (b) How many unique words are used? (c) How many words are used at least 5 times? (d) Write the 200 most common words, and their counts, to a file. Exercise 7.3: Random text generator II In this exercise, we will finish the implementation of our random text generator from Question 6.4. Change the process textfile function such that it reads a file line by line and processes it, instead of using the hardcoded sample. This should require only a few changes to the code. Generate some random sentences based on the books provided in the data/ folder. As you will notice, most phrases are very random. To make the phrases seem a little more realistic, we should use not just the last word, but the two last words. Going back to our previous example: ‘the fire and the wind.’ we would have the (state, new word) pairs: (‘the fire’, ‘and’), (‘fire and’, ‘the’), (‘and the’, ‘wind’) etc. Update your code to use states consisting of two words instead of one. Bonus: Using more than 2 words is infeasible unless we have massive amounts of text data because the number of states gets increasingly large. Change your code such that you can specify k, the number of words per state. Exercise 7.4: Sum of lists Before you start coding, please read the entire problem. (a) Data generation Write a function that takes three integers, n, a and b and a filename and writes to the file a list with n random integers between a and b. Page 8 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (b) Reading the data Write a function that can read the files as generated above and return the values. (c) Sum problem Write a function that given two filenames (pointing to files as generated by the above function) and an integer k, finds all u and v such that u + v = k, and u is an element of the first list and v is a member of the second list. (d) Testing Test your functions by generating 2 files with n = 2000, a = 1, b = 10000 and k = 5000 and k = 12000. (e) Bonus: Efficiency If you are up to a challenge, write a function that solves the sum problem with the restriction that you can only go over every number in the both lists once. 8 Classes Exercise 8.1: Rational numbers In this problem, we will write a class that can represent rational numbers, i.e. fractions p q . (a) Create a class Rational which is initialized by two integers, p and q, the nominator and denominator (b) Add a method to print the rational number as p/q (the str or repr method is useful). (c) We would like to represent 10 20 by 1 2 instead, hence write a function that computes the greatest common divisor, and ensure that every rational number is simplified (d) Add a method so that we can add two rational numbers with r1 + r2, here the add() method is useful. (e) Add a method to subtract two rational numbers. (sub) (f) Add a method to multiply two rational numbers. (mul) (g) Add a method to divide two rational numbers. (div) (h) Add a method that compares whether two rational numbers are equal. (i) Add a method to convert the rational number to a floating point (the float() method may be handy). (j) Add any more functionality that you think is useful but I failed to mention. Exercise 8.2: Rock Paper Scissors In this problem, we will finish an implementation for Rock-Paper-Scissors. We have written some code to get you started, now it’s up to you to finish the implementation. The code consists of 2 files: game.py and agent.py. The code that implements the actual game is coded in game.py. agent.py defines several agents that can play the game. Download the starter code here using \$ git clone https://github.com/schmit/Rock-paper-scissors-startercode.git (if you have git / use Cloud9) or dowload the code directly: https://github.com/schmit/Rock-paper-scissors-startercode/archive/master.zip Page 9 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (a) Finish the implementation of game.py by implementing the compare function, updating the scores (where a win is 1 point, and a tie or loss 0 points), and finally the summary function that gives some information after the game. (b) Implement the HumanAgent in agent.py, this agent should query the user for the next move, and ensure that the user gives valid input. (c) Implement MyAgent, where you can implement your own strategy, try to beat the InstructorAgent consistently over 100 rounds. Hint: have a look at the Hangman code. Exercise 8.3: Hangman agent Implement your own Hangman computer agent (see exercise 2.4) that is much more effective than the Agent that guesses random characters. Make sure you create a new class rather than overwriting the existing Agent class. You can of course inherit from the Agent class You can update the simulate.py script to test your implementation. Exercise 8.4: Sparse and dense vectors In exercise 6.5 you implemented functions for sparse and dense vector multiplications using lists and dictionaries. However, this is a bit clumsy to use in practice. Really, we would like to represent sparse and dense vectors as classes, this way we can overload operators such as + ( add ) and get sensible output. For example, using + on two dense vectors implemented as lists would append the second vector to the first, instead of adding the two together. Implement sparse and dense vectors. Both classes should have the following capabilities: (a) Print vector (b) Add two vectors (both if other is dense and sparse) (c) Multiply two vectors (both if other is dense and sparse) Do re-use your code from the previous exercise. Hint: isinstance() might be useful. Exercise 8.5: Implementing the set class Write a class mySet that has the same basic functionality as the Python set data structure. Base your implementation on a dictionary. Exercise 8.6: Binary search tree In this exercise, we will implement a binary search tree. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_ search_tree for an explanation. (a) Define a class Node, and write the constructor, which takes one argument, value, and initializes the left and right children to None. (b) Write a function to print the tree. (c) Write a function that inserts a new value in the tree at the right location. (d) Write a function that looks up a value in the tree. (e) Write a function that removes a value from the tree. Exercise 8.7: Ordinary least squares Our goal in this exercise is to write our own least-squares solver to solve regression problems: arg min β ky − Xβk2 Page 10 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises See for example statsmodels ols or LinearRegression. While one can, and should, use written solvers, it’s a good practice exercise. (a) Setup an OLS class with fit and predict methods, to be coded later (b) Write the fit method using numpy’s or scipy’s linear algebra module. (c) Now write the predict function, that predicts yn given new Xn. (d) Add a function that summarizes the model (e) (Optional) Use Patsy and Pandas to support DataFrames and formulas, similar to R. 9 Numpy Generate matrices A, with random Gaussian entries, B, a Toeplitz matrix, where A ∈ R n×m and B ∈ R m×m, for n = 200, m = 500. Exercise 9.1: Matrix operations Calculate A + A, AA>, A>A and AB. Write a function that computes A(B − λI) for any λ. Exercise 9.2: Solving a linear system Generate a vector b with m entries and solve Bx = b. Exercise 9.3: Norms Compute the Frobenius norm of A: kAkF and the infinity norm of B: kBk∞. Also find the largest and smallest singular values of B. Exercise 9.4: Power iteration Generate a matrix Z, n × n, with Gaussian entries, and use the power iteration to find the largest eigenvalue and corresponding eigenvector of Z. How many iterations are needed till convergence? Optional: use the time.clock() method to compare computation time when varying n. Exercise 9.5: Singular values Generate an n × n matrix, denoted by C, where each entry is 1 with probability p and 0 otherwise. Use the linear algebra library of Scipy to compute the singular values of C. What can you say about the relationship between n, p and the largest singular value? Exercise 9.6: Nearest neighbor Write a function that takes a value z and an array A and finds the element in A that is closest to z. The function should return the closest value, not index. Hint: Use the built-in functionality of Numpy rather than writing code to find this value manually. In particular, use brackets and argmin. 10 Scipy Exercise 10.1: Least squares Generate matrix A ∈ Rm×n with m > n. Also generate some vector b ∈ Rm. Now find x = arg minx kAx − bk2. Print the norm of the residual. Exercise 10.2: Optimization Find the maximum of the function f(x) = sin2 (x − 2)e −x 2 Page 11 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 index 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 value True coefficients Estimated coefficients Figure 1: Parameter plot Exercise 10.3: Pairwise distances Let X be a matrix with n rows and m columns. How can you compute the pairwise distances between every two rows? As an example application, consider n cities, and we are given their coordinates in two columns. Now we want a nice table that tells us for each two cities, how far they are apart. Again, make sure you make use of Scipy’s functionality instead of writing your own routine. 11 Matplotlib Exercise 11.1: Plotting a function Plot the function f(x) = sin2 (x − 2)e −x 2 over the interval [0, 2]. Add proper axis labels, a title, etc. Exercise 11.2: Data Create a data matrix X with 20 observations of 10 variables. Generate a vector b with parameters Then generate the response vector y = Xb+z where z is a vector with standard normally distributed variables. Now (by only using y and X), find an estimator for b, by solving ˆb = arg min b kXb − yk2 Plot the true parameters b and estimated parameters ˆb. See Figure 1 for an example plot. Exercise 11.3: Histogram and density estimation Generate a vector z of 10000 observations from your favorite exotic distribution. Then make a plot that shows a histogram of z (with 25 bins), along with an estimate for the density, using a Gaussian kernel density estimator (see scipy.stats). See Figure 2 for an example plot. 12 Recursion Exercise 12.1: Power Write a recursive function that computes a b for given a and b, where b is an integer. Do not use **. Page 12 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Figure 2: Histogram Exercise 12.2: Recursive map and filter Write a recursive functions myrecmap and myrecfilter that implement the map and filter functions using recursion. Exercise 12.3: Purify Write two functions, one that uses iteration (say a for loop), and the other using recursion, that achieve the following: The input of the function is a list with integers. The functions return a (new) list with only the even integers in the list. Exercise 12.4: Product Write two functions, one that uses iteration, and the other using recursion, that achieve the following: The input of the function is a list with numbers. The functions return the product of the numbers in the list. Exercise 12.5: Factorial Write a recursive function to compute n! = n × (n − 1) × . . . × 1. Note that 0! is defined to equal 1. Exercise 12.6: Recursive root finding In Exercise 3.5 you wrote a function to find a root of a function f. Now write a recursive function that finds the root of a function. Exercise 12.7: Collatz sequence Write a recursive implementation of a function that returns a list with the Collatz sequence started at an arbitrary starting value. Recall: A Collatz sequence is formed as follows: We start with some number x0, and we find the next number in the sequence by xi+1 = ( xi/2 if xi is even 3xi + 1 if xi is odd If xi = 1, we stop iterating and have found the full sequence. Exercise 12.8: Fibonacci sequence The Fibonacci sequence {Fi}i = 0∞ starts with F0 = 0, F1 = 1. Every subsequent value in the sequence is the sum of the last elements in the sequence: Fn = Fn−1 + Fn−2 (a) Implement a non-recursive function that computes the Fn (b) Implement a recursive function that computes Fn Page 13 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises (c) Compare the runtime for computing F35 recursively versus non-recursively, and explain the difference. (d) This does not mean a recursion is not feasible for this problem, only that the naive implementation isn’t the best. We can get a better version using either of the following (a) Store values already calculated, say in a dictionary, so you can look them up instead of redoing the calculation. (b) Generalizing the Fibonacci sequence to an additive sequence with arbitrary starting points t0 and t1, and finding a recursive algorithm to find the nth term in such a sequence. Note that finding the nth term in a sequence started from t0 and t1 is the same as finding the n − 1th term in a sequence started from t1 and t0 + t1. Implement one of the above (or both). Exercise 12.9: Palindromes Given a string t, we are interested in finding the largest palindrome in t, where we are allowed to remove characters from t. For example, consider the string abcdba, then the function should return abcba. Before you start coding, figure out the recursion on paper first. Extra: you will notice that if you are not careful, this will take a very long time to compute for longer inputs. However, a simple modification can speed up your code so that it runs in O(n 2 ), where n is the length of the input string. Find and implement this modification.2 Exercise 12.10: Quicksort There are many sorting algorithms, see for example http://www.sorting-algorithms.com/. Quicksort is a well known (and quick) sorting algorithm that works as follows: (a) Test whether the list is sorted, if not: (b) Select one part of the list as pivot, any element works. (c) Create a new list, left and right, and put all elements smaller than the pivot in the left list, and all elements larger than the pivot in the right list. (d) Recursively sort the left and right list, and return sorted left + pivot + sorted right. Implement the quicksort algorithm. However, first think about the following caveats and how to get around them: (a) Testing whether a list is sorted takes quite a bit of work, so we do not want to do this. Instead, we want to perform a much simpler check: what list is trivially sorted? (b) What happens when the pivot element occurs multiple times in the list? How can we get around this? 13 Iterators Exercise 13.1: Collatz sequence Write a generator that generates the Collatz sequence with initial value n. Use this to print out the Collatz sequence started at 103 Recall the Collatz sequence problem from last week. A Collatz sequence is formed as follows: We start with some number x0, and we find the next number in the sequence by xi+1 = ( xi/2 if xi is even 3xi + 1 if xi is odd 2This exercise is inspired by an exercise in cs221. Page 14 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises If xi = 1, we stop iterating and have found the full sequence. Exercise 13.2: Collatz array using Numpy Use the Collatz generator you wrote in the previous exercise to generate a vector with as ellements the Collatz sequence started at 61. Hint: use the np.fromiter function. Exercise 13.3: Prime numbers Write an iterator that iterates over the first n prime numbers. Use this to print out the first 10,000 primes. 14 Exception handling Exercise 14.1: Rational numbers Edit your code that implements the Rational class such that it raises an exception when the denominator is 0. Exercise 14.2: Wordcount Recall the exercise of finding the 20 most common words in the Complete works of Shakespeare. Write a script, reusing as much of your code as you can, such that you can specify the filename and k for the k most common words at the command line and that the script will print the k most common words, and their counts, from the file. Make sure you handle errors gracefully, such as a misspecified filename. 15 Unit testing Exercise 15.1: Factorial Write unit tests for the factorial function. Exercise 15.2: Prime numbers Write a program primes.py that takes two command line arguments, a < b, and returns all prime numbers between a and b (inclusive). Write a seperate test script primestest.py that contains unittests for all functions in your script. Exercise 15.3: Sorting Write unit tests for a sorting algorithm. Test whether your implementation of quicksort passes the tests. 16 More modules Exercise 16.1: Regular expressions to find email addresses At http://stanford.edu/~schmit/cme193/ex/data/emailchallenge.txt you find some text data with some email addresses. Your task is to write a script that finds these email addresses (and ignores the fake ones). First, use the requests library to download the data directly into Python (so don’t save the file locally). Then use re to match the email addresses. Make sure to extract the local part and domain part (before and after @) separately. Page 15 CME 193 Introduction to Python Exercises Hint: Although written for the Ruby regex, http://rubular.com/ can be very useful to play around with your pattern. The Python regular expression should be identical or almost identical. Exercise 16.2: Flask Write a Flask app that displays the current date and time. Hint: Use the datetime module to get the current time. Page 16