In [13]:

%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt



Support Vector Machines



In [14]:

from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(digits.data / 16., digits.target % 2, random_state=2)




In [15]:

from sklearn.svm import LinearSVC, SVC
linear_svc = LinearSVC(loss="hinge").fit(X_train, y_train)
svc = SVC(kernel="linear").fit(X_train, y_train)




In [16]:

np.mean(linear_svc.predict(X_test) == svc.predict(X_test))




Out[16]:

1.0



Kernel SVMs

Predictions in a kernel-SVM are made using the formular

$$\hat{y} = \alpha_0 + \alpha_1 y_1 k(\mathbf{x^{(1)}}, \mathbf{x}) + ... + \alpha_n y_n k(\mathbf{x^{(n)}}, \mathbf{x})> 0$$$$0 \leq \alpha_i \leq C$$

Radial basis function (Gaussian) kernel: $$k(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{x'}) = \exp(-\gamma ||\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{x'}||^2)$$



In [17]:

from sklearn.metrics.pairwise import rbf_kernel
line = np.linspace(-3, 3, 100)[:, np.newaxis]
kernel_value = rbf_kernel([[0]], line, gamma=1)
plt.plot(line, kernel_value.T)




Out[17]:

[<matplotlib.lines.Line2D at 0x18c2e9b0>]




In [18]:

from figures import plot_svm_interactive
plot_svm_interactive()







In [19]:

svc = SVC().fit(X_train, y_train)
svc.score(X_test, y_test)




Out[19]:

0.9177777777777778




In [20]:

Cs = [0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100]
gammas = [0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100]

from sklearn.grid_search import GridSearchCV

param_grid = {'C': Cs, 'gamma' : gammas}
grid_search = GridSearchCV(SVC(), param_grid, cv=5)
grid_search.fit(X_train, y_train)




Out[20]:

GridSearchCV(cv=5, error_score='raise',
estimator=SVC(C=1.0, cache_size=200, class_weight=None, coef0=0.0, degree=3, gamma=0.0,
kernel='rbf', max_iter=-1, probability=False, random_state=None,
shrinking=True, tol=0.001, verbose=False),
fit_params={}, iid=True, loss_func=None, n_jobs=1,
param_grid={'C': [0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100], 'gamma': [0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100]},
pre_dispatch='2*n_jobs', refit=True, score_func=None, scoring=None,
verbose=0)




In [21]:

grid_search.score(X_test, y_test)




Out[21]:

0.98666666666666669




In [22]:

# We extract just the scores
scores = [x[1] for x in grid_search.grid_scores_]
scores = np.array(scores).reshape(6, 6)

plt.matshow(scores)
plt.xlabel('gamma')
plt.ylabel('C')
plt.colorbar()
plt.xticks(np.arange(6), param_grid['gamma'])
plt.yticks(np.arange(6), param_grid['C']);







In [ ]: