```
In [1]:
```%matplotlib inline
import gym
import matplotlib
import numpy as np
import sys
from collections import defaultdict
if "../" not in sys.path:
sys.path.append("../")
from lib.envs.blackjack import BlackjackEnv
from lib import plotting
matplotlib.style.use('ggplot')

```
In [2]:
```env = BlackjackEnv()

```
In [3]:
```def make_epsilon_greedy_policy(Q, epsilon, nA):
"""
Creates an epsilon-greedy policy based on a given Q-function and epsilon.
Args:
Q: A dictionary that maps from state -> action-values.
Each value is a numpy array of length nA (see below)
epsilon: The probability to select a random action . float between 0 and 1.
nA: Number of actions in the environment.
Returns:
A function that takes the observation as an argument and returns
the probabilities for each action in the form of a numpy array of length nA.
"""
def policy_fn(observation):
A = np.ones(nA, dtype=float) * epsilon / nA
best_action = np.argmax(Q[observation])
A[best_action] += (1.0 - epsilon)
return A
return policy_fn

```
In [4]:
```def mc_control_epsilon_greedy(env, num_episodes, discount_factor=1.0, epsilon=0.1):
"""
Monte Carlo Control using Epsilon-Greedy policies.
Finds an optimal epsilon-greedy policy.
Args:
env: OpenAI gym environment.
num_episodes: Nubmer of episodes to sample.
discount_factor: Lambda discount factor.
epsilon: Chance the sample a random action. Float betwen 0 and 1.
Returns:
A tuple (Q, policy).
Q is a dictionary mapping state -> action values.
policy is a function taht takes an observation as an argument and returns
action probabilities
"""
# Keeps track of sum and count of returns for each state
# to calculate an average. We could use an array to save all
# returns (like in the book) but that's memory inefficient.
returns_sum = defaultdict(float)
returns_count = defaultdict(float)
# The final action-value function.
# A nested dictionary that maps state -> (action -> action-value).
Q = defaultdict(lambda: np.zeros(env.action_space.n))
# The policy we're following
policy = make_epsilon_greedy_policy(Q, epsilon, env.action_space.n)
for i_episode in range(1, num_episodes + 1):
# Print out which episode we're on, useful for debugging.
if i_episode % 1000 == 0:
print("\rEpisode {}/{}.".format(i_episode, num_episodes), end="")
sys.stdout.flush()
# Generate an episode.
# An episode is an array of (state, action, reward) tuples
episode = []
state = env.reset()
for t in range(100):
probs = policy(state)
action = np.random.choice(np.arange(len(probs)), p=probs)
next_state, reward, done, _ = env.step(action)
episode.append((state, action, reward))
if done:
break
state = next_state
# Find all (state, action) pairs we've visited in this episode
# We convert each state to a tuple so that we can use it as a dict key
sa_in_episode = set([(tuple(x[0]), x[1]) for x in episode])
for state, action in sa_in_episode:
sa_pair = (state, action)
# Find the first occurance of the (state, action) pair in the episode
first_occurence_idx = next(i for i,x in enumerate(episode)
if x[0] == state and x[1] == action)
# Sum up all rewards since the first occurance
G = sum([x[2]*(discount_factor**i) for i,x in enumerate(episode[first_occurence_idx:])])
# Calculate average return for this state over all sampled episodes
returns_sum[sa_pair] += G
returns_count[sa_pair] += 1.0
Q[state][action] = returns_sum[sa_pair] / returns_count[sa_pair]
# The policy is improved implicitly by changing the Q dictionar
return Q, policy

```
In [5]:
```Q, policy = mc_control_epsilon_greedy(env, num_episodes=500000, epsilon=0.1)

```
```

```
In [6]:
```# For plotting: Create value function from action-value function
# by picking the best action at each state
V = defaultdict(float)
for state, actions in Q.items():
action_value = np.max(actions)
V[state] = action_value
plotting.plot_value_function(V, title="Optimal Value Function")

```
```

```
In [ ]:
```