In [8]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
import metapack as mp
import numpy as np
%matplotlib inline

In [3]:
awards = pkg.resource('awards').read_csv(parse_dates=True)

In [4]:

100 101 102 103 104
doing_business_as_name Science Approach, LLC University of Hawaii KCAW-FM Raven Radio Red Hill Studios Clark University
pd_pi_name Steven D Moore Wayne A Shiroma Richard Nelson Robert W Hone Karen E Frey
pd_pi_phone (520) 322-0118 (808) 956-7218 (907) 747-5877 (415) 457-0440 (760) 855-5971
co_pd_s_co_pi_s Allison Whitmer NaN NaN Janis Cannon-Bowers NaN
award_date 2007-09-26 00:00:00 2007-09-26 00:00:00 2007-09-26 00:00:00 2007-09-26 00:00:00 2007-09-26 00:00:00
estimated_total_award_amount 1.03922e+06 47199 349075 636502 59441
funds_obligated_to_date 1039220 47198 349075 636502 59441
start_date 2008-01-01 00:00:00 2007-09-15 00:00:00 2007-09-15 00:00:00 2007-09-15 00:00:00 2008-01-01 00:00:00
end_date 2011-12-31 00:00:00 2012-08-31 00:00:00 2011-02-28 00:00:00 2011-08-31 00:00:00 2010-12-31 00:00:00
transaction_type Grant Grant Grant Grant Grant
awarding_agency_code 4900 4900 4900 4900 4900
funding_agency_code 4900 4900 4900 4900 4900
cfda_number 47.076 47.076 47.076 47.076 47.076
primary_program_source 495176 H-1B FUND, EHR, NSF 495176 H-1B FUND, EHR, NSF 490106 NSF,Education & Human Resource 490106 NSF,Education & Human Resource 490106 NSF,Education & Human Resource
award_title_or_description CoastLines Collaborative Project: Multi-University System... Encounters: Radio Experiences in the North BioArcade Collaborative Research. IPY: The Polaris Proje...
federal_award_id_number 0737706 0717192 0732438 0714779 0732586
duns_id 136960387 965088057 826825242 807336383 957447782
parent_duns_id NaN 9.43866e+06 NaN NaN 7.53495e+07
program_officer_name David B. Campbell Don L. Millard Sandra H. Welch Arlene M. de Strulle Hannah M. Sevian
program_officer_phone (703) 292-5093 (703) 292-4620 (703) 292-5094 (703) 292-5117 (703) 292-5108
awardee_street 1611 N. Wilmot Road 2440 Campus Road, Box 368 2 Lincoln Street 1017 E Street, Ste. C 950 MAIN ST
awardee_city Tucson HONOLULU Sitka San Rafael WORCESTER
awardee_state AZ HI AK CA MA
awardee_zip 85712-4475 96822-2234 99835-7538 94901-2845 01610-0140
awardee_county Tucson Honolulu Sitka San Rafael NaN
awardee_country US US US US US
awardee_cong_district 2 1 0 6 3
primary_organization_name Science Approach, LLC University of Hawaii KCAW-FM Raven Radio Red Hill Studios Clark University
primary_street 1611 N. Wilmot Road 2440 Campus Road, Box 368 2 Lincoln Street 1017 E Street, Ste. C 950 MAIN ST
primary_city Tucson HONOLULU Sitka San Rafael WORCESTER
primary_state AZ HI AK CA MA
primary_zip 85712-4475 96822-2234 99835-7538 94901-2845 01610-0140
primary_county Tucson Honolulu Sitka San Rafael NaN
primary_country US US US US US
primary_cong_district 02 01 00 06 03
abstract_at_time_of_award CoastLines is a Comprehensive Project for Stud... Engineering - Electrical (55)<br/><br/>This pr... This project will create a series of half hour... Red Hills Studios proposes to design and devel... Earth Systems Science (40). The Polaris Projec...
publications_produced_as_a_result_of_this_research NaN NaN NaN NaN Frey, KE; McClelland, JW~Impacts of permafrost...
publications_produced_as_conference_proceedings NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
projectoutcomesreport NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
col44 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN

In [5]:

4900.0    136672
Name: awarding_agency_code, dtype: int64

In [6]:

US      136474
USA      18557
BD          67
CA          24
UK          22
FR          22
GM          14
BR           7
SZ           5
AS           4
SW           4
BMU          4
CAN          4
AU           3
NZ           3
UY           3
RQ           3
DA           3
GBR          2
JA           2
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GQ           1
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IS           1
NL           1
IT           1
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CM           1
SP           1
IN           1
Name: awardee_country, dtype: int64

In [11]:
awards.estimated_total_award_amount[awards.estimated_total_award_amount< 1000000].hist()

<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x10e9ed668>

In [14]:
awards.estimated_total_award_amount[awards.estimated_total_award_amount > 10000000].hist()

<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x10cfdbe48>

In [18]:

count    1.306620e+05
mean     4.608051e+05
std      3.262013e+06
min      1.000000e+00
25%      1.051302e+05
50%      2.575050e+05
75%      4.497130e+05
max      4.677999e+08
Name: estimated_total_award_amount, dtype: float64

In [42]:

University of Michigan Ann Arbor              2050
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign    1943
University of Washington                      1853
University of California-Berkeley             1633
University of Wisconsin-Madison               1608
University of Texas at Austin                 1572
Georgia Institute of Technology               1528
Massachusetts Institute of Technology         1495
Pennsylvania State Univ University Park       1492
Purdue University                             1485
University of Colorado at Boulder             1480
Arizona State University                      1369
University of Maryland College Park           1367
Stanford University                           1330
Cornell University                            1327
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities           1318
University of California-San Diego            1190
University of Florida                         1188
University of Arizona                         1170
University of California-Los Angeles          1169
Name: primary_organization_name, dtype: int64

In [51]:

In [38]:
year_range = (awards.award_date.dt.year.max() - awards.award_date.dt.year.min())
awards.estimated_total_award_amount.sum() / year_range


In [52]:
mudd = awards[awards.primary_organization_name.str.match('Harvey').fillna(False)]


In [55]:

'Mathematical Sciences (21)<br/><br/>This project is improving the teaching and learning of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by encouraging the wide-spread adoption of modeling projects and computer experiments in ODE courses by: (a) creating a digital library of resources and an online community for ODE instructors to find, share, discuss, and evaluate resources for teaching ODEs; (b) completing the development of a robust, flexible, platform-independent numerical solver that is being freely distributed over the Internet and can carry out computer experiments designed to help students learn about ODEs; and (c) training ODE instructors in the effective use of modeling projects and computer experiments via short courses at mathematics meetings. This project builds on the previous accomplishments of the Consortium of Ordinary Differential Equations Experiments (CODEE).<br/><br/>Intellectual Merit: Because dynamical systems lie at the heart of scientific inquiry, courses in ODEs are an integral part of any science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) undergraduate degree program. To become proficient modelers that allow them to tackle authentic research and industrial problems, students should be immersed in mathematical modeling. Modeling projects help students develop communication, team-building, and critical thinking skills. Students are being prepared in the appropriate use of numerical ODE solvers, as most differential equations of practical interest do not have analytic solutions. Modeling is now a common theme in many introductory ODE textbooks, and the educational value of software to numerically calculate and visualize the solutions of ODEs is increasing. However, resources are not currently available to conveniently bring high-quality modeling projects and computer experiments to a wide audience of STEM students. Indeed, these types of educational materials currently appear in isolated places and are published in disparate media. As a result, many instructors who want to incorporate modeling in a meaningful way in their courses spend a great deal of time and effort to overcome barriers. This project is reducing these barriers as much as possible.<br/><br/>Broader Impact: Successful students in the interdisciplinary research environment of today are those who can appreciate the wide applicability of differential equations and understand the techniques that can be used to attack them. Wide-spread adoption of innovations in the teaching and learning of ODEs affects the preparation of a great number of future scientists, not just mathematicians. Since modeling skills are increasingly being sought by employers, project activities improve the employability of these future scientists and engineers. This project combines the efforts of scientists, engineers and mathematicians to bring modeling projects to any student, creates a community of instructors interested in the teaching and learning of ODEs and encourages them to collaborate on the creation of new learning materials, encourages mathematics education specialists to conduct research on the teaching and learning of ODEs, gives undergraduate faculty a venue for publishing their models, and raises the awareness of instructors about the merits of modeling projects and computer experiments in ODE courses.\nProposal Number:  CBET-0730630  <br/>Principal Investigator:  Andrew J. Bernoff<br/>University/Institution:  Harvey Mudd College<br/><br/>Title:  Collaborative research MSPA-ENG: Dynamics of interfacial domains   <br/>This is a collaborative project with CBET-0730626 / Case Western Reserve Univ., and 0730475 / Kent State University.<br/><br/>This project aims to quantitatively characterize, by linking experiment to mathematical and numerical analysis, domain dynamics within molecularly thin layers confined at the fluid/fluid interface (Langmuir layers). Motion within these layers is confined to the plane of the surface, and thus in two dimensions. However, molecular configurations can change freely with respect to the surface, and the layer can buckle out of the surface. Such layers present an enormous richness of surface phases: gases and liquids, liquid crystals, and elastic "solids." Experimental developments over the last 15 years have allowed a much clearer understanding of these phases. Dynamic processes, while essential to characterize macro-and mesoscopic properties of the film, prove much more difficult to measure experimentally and understand quantitatively through mathematical analysis. The dynamics in these layers are important due to the analogue dynamics controlling cell membrane processes, but also because they are probes into the physical-chemical nature of the Langmuir layer. <br/><br/>The PIs begin by describing their new results for dynamics within fluid monolayers, as the domains move towards equilibrium shape and size. Hydrodynamic flow involves motion within the Langmuir layer, but also within the subfluid, where it may not be parallel to the surface. Preliminary results from the group explore cases that show how combining high-quality experiments, detailed knowledge of surface chemistry, careful dimensional analysis, mathematical modeling, analytical techniques, intelligently-designed numerical methods and data analysis allows a deeper understanding of the physics of these <br/><br/>problems. With comparisons between simulations and experiment going far beyond small perturbations in shape and size by application of our 4-roll mill technology, they will improve both accuracy and precision on measurements of the line tension, a critical parameter for both dynamics and layer morphology. They will also explore beyond the line tension, to include the effect of electrostatics and the compressibility of the layer. For this comparison, they will refine the experiment, include electrostatic and other contributions to the analysis, and develop the numerical analysis. As the project develops, they will reach beyond fluid-monolayer systems, in particular to those involving elastic solids that buckle out of the plane. <br/><br/>Intellectual Merit. Langmuir monolayers provide an experimentally accessible two-dimensional system, which require a combination of careful experiment, analysis, and simulation to probe effectively. Dynamic processes within these layers have been difficult to analyze, both experimentally and theoretically. The principle investigators in this project have demonstrated that in collaboration, they can identify useful cases in which theories amenable to numerical analysis can be developed and compared to the corresponding experiment. This project will deepen and extend that approach. We have improved both the precision and the accuracy of measurements of the line tension by more than an order of magnitude. This will allow them to directly probe the effect of long-range forces on this parameter, and to explore the effect of temperature and composition, including line-active molecules, on the line tension, which plays a critical role on the morphology within the Langmuir layer and its analogues. <br/><br/>Broader Impact. Dynamics within molecularly thin layers is critical for understanding such systems as biological membranes. The recognition of the functional importance of domains in biological cell membranes grows exponentially: domains may sequester proteins needed for signaling or provide structural conditions for shape changes. Langmuir monolayers provide a model system for all such layers. Furthermore, the domain size is potentially controllable over a wide range of sizes from the nano to the micro scales, so that arrays of domains with different physical and chemical properties can be formed by transferring the Langmuir layer to a solid substrate, providing more control than possible with self-assembled monolayers. The students in this project will be involved in a project that cuts across three disciplines (physics, chemical engineering and mathematics), and experience the value of combining different approaches to a common problem with both fundamental and practical implications. Both undergraduate and graduate students are included in this project, and the group also has a history of deep commitment to involving underrepresented groups in their research. (The E.K. Mann group, for example, is headed by a woman.)\nUnderstanding plant cell lipid signaling is critical for understanding the regulation of many aspects of plant physiology. Phosphoinositides (PIs) play critical roles in plant responses to stress, vascular development, guard cell dynamics and cell growth and morphology. Plants have evolved novel mechanisms of PI signaling and novel PI modifying pathways that are distinct from those in animals and yeast. Studies undertaken in this project will lead to new insights into the function of PIs in plants cells and new tools and methods that will greatly enhance study of plant PI signaling, and ultimately lead to the development of novel approaches for engineering plants with greater tolerances to abiotic and biotic stresses. <br/><br/>Primarily through their interactions with proteins, PIs regulate functions including vesicle trafficking and membrane/cytoskeleton interactions. PI accumulation is regulated in part by the action of PI phosphatases, including the Sac-domain proteins. Sac-domain proteins are conserved across eukaryotes, but a novel distinct family member, SAC9, is found only in plants and green algae. Plant and algal SAC9 proteins have many conserved differences from the other Sac-domain proteins, including the other Sac-domain proteins found in plants. Dr. Williams\'s group\'s initial studies have demonstrated that SAC9 is important for regulation of both PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels and actin cytoskeleton distribution in plants. Further characterization of the novel SAC9 protein, and phenotypes of sac9 mutant plants, will both inform studies on Sac-domain proteins across eukaryotes, and contribute to an understanding of the interactions between PIs, the actin cytoskeleton and plant cell functions. This project will (1) characterize the activity and cellular localization of AtSAC9 through in vitro and in vivo expression; (2) characterize the roles of the plant-specific C-terminal domain and SAC9-specific WW domain in AtSAC9 function and cellular distribution; (3) examine SAC9 function in vivo through transient and inducible expression studies; and (4) test our model of SAC9 function by examining co-localization of SAC9, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and actin filaments using fluorescent proteins and immunolocalization.<br/><br/>Broader Impact<br/>Both principal investigators have extensive experience and demonstrated success conducting research with undergraduates, and believe that providing exciting research opportunities to undergraduates in the classroom and the research lab is instrumental for bringing them into the science pipeline. Drs. Williams and Dewald have developed ways that ensure the undergraduates in their laboratories will be trained technically in sophisticated approaches and will participate in research design and execution. The research will be carried out principally by undergraduate students at both Harvey Mudd College (HMC) and Utah State University (USU). One graduate student at USU will collaborate with the undergraduates and participate in undergraduate teaching. This project builds on an ongoing and successful collaboration that has involved undergraduates at both HMC and USU.\nThis scholarship program is supporting three cohorts of 12 students during their freshmen and sophomore years. The program is providing a free two-week orientation, an array of academic services, and opportunities for undergraduate STEM research. The program team includes faculty from every STEM discipline at the college, administrators, the director of learning programs, the director of career services, and an industry representative who is a member of the institution\'s Corporate Strategic Alliance. <br/><br/>The intellectual merit of this program lies in the strengthening of academic support programs to help students excel in STEM fields so that more diverse students complete a high-quality STEM degree. <br/><br/>The broader impacts relate to increasing the number of financially needy students who are being prepared to enter high-skill jobs in the workforce and dissemination of results from a study on students\' sense of social connection as a result of the program activities.\nRUI: Combinatorial Fixed Point Theorems, Polytopes, and Preference Sets<br/><br/><br/>The investigator\'s prior work has introduced methods from combinatorial topology and discrete geometry to the study of certain ""fair division"" <br/>questions in mathematical economics. The current proposal will support the development of the mathematics behind these methods and the solution of several combinatorial questions that have been motivated by his prior work, including: (1) the study of minimal triangulations and minimal simplicial covers of polytopes, (2) the further development of combinatorial fixed point theorems and associated simplicial algorithms, and (3) the development of convexity theorems that have bearing on social choice problems.  Broader impacts of the proposed work include its interdisciplinary applications to group decision making, fair division, and voting problems, and the active participation and training of undergraduates in the proposed research.<br/><br/>Informally speaking, a ""fair division"" problem is concerned with finding methods for dividing a set of goods among players in such a way that everyone can be satisfied according to some notion of fairness. This topic is of interest to economists, political scientists, and game theorists, and it often motivates interesting mathematical questions. The set of possible solutions in such problems is often a polyhedron of high dimension (a polytope), and one can usually find a solution by breaking the polytope into many pieces (tetrahedra), and walking around the polytope in a way that is guided by player preferences. Thus the mathematics of how polytopes can be built up from its tetrahedral building blocks using ideas from three areas (combinatorics, topology, and discrete<br/>geometry) as well as related classical convexity theorems will have direct application to important problems in the social sciences involving human strategy and decision making.\nThis proposal requests funding for a Workshop on Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations to take place in Cartagena, Colombia -- July 23-27, 2007.  Organized by Dr. Alfonso Castro of Harvey Mudd College and Dr. Jorge Cossio from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, in Medellin, Colombia, the workshop will be part of the VII Americas School in Differential Equations and Nonlinear Analysis (VII ASDE), an annual conference held in the region.  The meeting will cover a variety of topics, from reaction-differential equations to nonlinear partial differential equations, inverse problems, and dynamical systems.  The workshop should be a catalyst for future collaboration between U.S. and Latin American researchers.<br/><br/>The workshop is expected to attract leading mathematics researchers and students from virtually all the countries in the region.  Each participant will present lectures on topics of his/her expertise leading to open questions of current interest.  The contacts established at the workshop are expected to lead to future collaboration and opportunities for graduate and postdoctoral students to advance their studies in other countries.  This award is being jointly funded by the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) and the Office of International Science and Engineering (OISE).\nThis award from the Division of Chemistry supports the renewal of a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) site at Harvey Mudd College (HMC).  Adam Johnson is the site\'s Program Director.  Eight REU students will be supported for a ten-week research program with additional students being supported by institutional funds and faculty research grants.  The major focus is on individual research in a range of chemical disciplines in close collaboration with HMC faculty mentors. Research activities will be supplemented by workshops in ethics, chemical safety, and information retrieval, and students will present their work in at least two public forums during the program.  Many students also will present their research results at the spring meeting of the American Chemical Society.  This site will continue to recruit women and also will encourage participation of underrepresented students from local institutions (two- and four-year institutions located in Los Angeles, Orange and Riverside counties) with limited summer research opportunities.  The evaluation and assessment of the research experience at HMC will be administered by the HMC Offices of Assessment and of the Dean of Faculty.  An anonymous program evaluation form will provide feedback on students\' research experiences.  HMC also participates in a long-term study on the impact of research on science undergraduates, carried out in collaboration with Hope, Grinnell and Wellesley Colleges.\nThe physics of the interaction of intense laser light with plasma when wavelength-scale particles are irradiated is investigated. While the nature of strong field interactions with atoms, molecules, small clusters and planar solids has been studied extensively for many years, how intense laser pulses interact with objects that are of a spatial scale comparable to the light?s wavelength is largely unexplored. These interactions are likely to exhibit properties which are quite distinct from the interactions of intense pulses with single atoms and molecules on one hand and large planar solid plasmas on the other. This work fills this gap in strong field physics with careful, well-designed experiments that isolate the effects which are peculiar to wavelength-scale targets. Previously, our investigations showed that strong field interactions could be enhanced by an appropriate choice of target particle size. Boundary conditions imposed by the particles create Mie enhancements in the local laser field and thereby increase the nonlinear response of the interaction. The specific focus of the current work is motivated by an important question that arose from our previous experimental and computation studies: is the nature of collisionless absorption by hot electrons around wavelength-scale plasmas different from collisionless absorption from a simple planar solid? A number of theories have recently surmised that such absorption is different at these scales, dominated by what has been termed multi-pass stochastic heating, in which hot electrons can absorb energy from the laser field by passing back and forth multiple times through the micron-scale plasma. This novel heating mechanism has been suggested as being important in a number of experiments and particle-in-cell simulations but there has as yet been no systematic experimental investigation. The current studies are designed to address this shortcoming. The experiments are designed to directly measure the electron and ion distributions generated in the collisionless heating process, and, by studying specific scalings in particles of well defined size, ascertain the importance or existence of this stochastic heating mechanism. The studies utilize a 20 TW, high temporal contrast laser at UT, electron and ion energy diagnostics, and a novel electrostatic particle injector as a target. These experiments are complemented by simulations using codes available at UT. The work is done through a unique collaboration between an academic research lab at the University of Texas and at Harvey Mudd College (HMC), an undergraduate institution. <br/><br/>Application of these kinds of studies may aid in the development of novel bright, laser-driven x-ray sources for radiography and time resolved diffraction, or compact neutron sources for imaging of other scientific applications. In addition to these scientific impacts, this collaborative work promises to make a significant and somewhat novel impactin graduate and undergraduate education. In addition to its scientific merit, and support of graduate student research at UT, this research significantly adds to the scope and number of research opportunities available to physics undergraduate students at HMC. This work represents a unique situation in which an undergraduate group is involved directly and in a critical way in larger scale strong field optics research, a field which is otherwise prohibitively resource intensive for undergraduate-level research alone. The PIs have an excellent record of working together and meaningfully involving undergraduates in their collaborations. Undergraduates have the opportunity to do research at HMC, travel to UT in the summers to participate in research using equipment they have developed, and travel to conferences to present their work to the scientific community. This collaboration will continue to be an effective way to motivate undergraduates to seeking advanced degrees in science. Furthermore the PIs will continue to disseminate their work through publication in appropriate peer-reviewed journals and international conference as they have done actively during the past funding period.<br/>Funds for this award are provided by the Physics Division within the NSF\'s Mathematics and Physical Sciences Directorate and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the DoE within the context of the NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering.\nIntellectual Merit.  <br/>     A fundamentally important challenge is to understand the extent to which the products of multi-gene families are functionally specialized, and the many dynein isoforms co-existing in the same cell present an important opportunity to understand dynein specialization.  The present project focuses on the interplay of the two non-axonemal or cytoplasmic dyneins-1 and -2 in cilia formation.  Because of the essential roles of cilia/flagella, intraflagellar transport (IFT) has evolved to ensure the proper assembly of these organelles.  The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is an excellent system in which to study IFT, and promises to yield new insights into IFT and cytoplasmic dyneins.  In contrast to what has been observed in other systems, the knockout of dynein-2 components in Tetrahymena results in only a mild reduction in the number and length of cilia.  In these knockout cells, the dynein-2 is catalytically inert, but there is evidence that the Dyh2 tail domain continues to be expressed.  Thus, either Tetrahymena does not require IFT to form functioning cilia, or Tetrahymena IFT can be powered by alternative motors other than dynein-2.  An intriguing possibility is that the remaining Dyh2 tail domain can recruit other motors to substitute for the missing Dyh2 catalytic domain.  Further, here is the opportunity to visualize both cytoplasmic dyneins in the same cell undergoing different processes, thus providing insights about the spatial coordination of the two dyneins.  Combinations of genetics, immunochemistry, and fluorescence microscopy will be used to determine how the intracellular location and the level of expression of one cytoplasmic dynein is affected by the depletion of the other cytoplasmic dynein.        <br/><br/>Broader Impact.  <br/>     The project focuses on the function of a protein motor in the regulation of cilia formation in a model organism.  In a wide spectrum of organisms, cilia/flagella play essential roles, including the coordinated movements of fluids across a tissue surface, the movement of gametes, and the establishment of the left-right axis in embryos.  In Tetrahymena, active cilia are required for cell motility, feeding, and cell division.  A central objective of this RUI project is to integrate research into education while enabling undergraduate students to engage in complex, open-ended experiments that provide each student the opportunity to employ strategies in molecular biology, genetics, cell biology, and serology.  Since 2003 at Harvey Mudd College, the laboratory has mentored 32 students who were from 7 different academic majors.  Of the 21 who have now graduated, ten are in graduate school.  To date, undergraduates have co-authored two peer-reviewed papers and three abstracts presented at national meetings.\nThis project is based on collaboration between Harvey Mudd College (HMC) and the School of Materials Science and Engineering and the Electron Microscope Unit at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Australia.  It is also a Research in Undergraduate Institutions activity, as the award supports international materials science research experiences for HMC undergraduate students.  The project focuses on resolving a longstanding controversy about the nature of arrays of aligned dislocation boundaries that are generated during rolling of deformed face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic metals with intermediate to high stacking fault energies. The structure and origin of these dislocation boundaries are of substantial interest due to their role in determining anisotropy in yield stress and strain hardening. Insight into the true character of these microscale structures is essential for advancing the predictive capabilities of physically-based models for macroscale mechanical properties. The two opposing theories of the structure and origin of these aligned boundaries in deformed polycrystals are: (i) they are oriented along certain crystallographic planes, or (ii) their alignment is dictated primarily by the macroscopic stress state during plastic deformation. Current evidence supporting these theories is based on two-dimensional data that does not necessarily reveal the true nature of deformation microstructures and can lead to erroneous interpretation.  To definitively resolve the issue and to further modeling capabilities, three-dimensional (3D) orientations of the boundaries are required.  Data in 3D is collected using focused ion beam-electron backscatter diffraction (FIB-EBSD) tomography. EBSD maps of FIB-generated serial sections are combined in post-processing to generate full crystallographic volumes capable of revealing many types of structural features at submicron resolution. <br/><br/>HMC students  lead the development of new computational tools required to efficiently and accurately analyze the large 3D data sets that result from this method. They also refine FIB-EBSD methods and present their findings in peer-reviewed journals and national or international conferences.  At UNSW, the supported undergraduates and the principal investigator have extensive access to electron microscopy facilities and training unavailable at HMC.  The project therefore provides an extraordinary opportunity for collaboration between UNSW\'s experts in physical metallurgy and electron microscopy and U.S.-based undergraduate students.  This award is co-funded by the Division of Materials Research and the Office of International Science and Engineering.\nThis project supported by the Experimental Physical Chemistry Program employs a new approach to more quickly and accurately determine the behavior of an important class of "green" surfactants in various solvents.  The surfactants known as alkyl glucosides are considered "green" as they are derived from naturally occurring and renewable resources and are largely environmentally and physiologically benign.   Depending on the temperature and the surfactant concentration in solution, alkyl glucosides assemble into a variety of aggregates such as spherical micelles and lamellar bilayers. Our approach monitors the fluorescence signal of a dye that is incorporated in the solvent-surfactant mixtures at very low concentrations.  The dye is sensitive to its chemical environment and yields a unique signal that reflects the nature of the aggregate(s) present.   One important advantage of this technique is that the fluorescence signals of the dye in different surfactant aggregates are independent of each other, and thus the signals from coexisting aggregates can be detected simultaneously. The fact that the signals can uniquely identify the aggregates present gives this technique its novelty and power.  Phase diagrams will be prepared to illustrate the aggregates present as a function of concentration and temperature. As all of the practical and commercial applications of glucoside surfactants depend critically on knowledge of surfactant phase diagrams, this project will provide accurate and complete information to enable preparation of specific aggregates.  A particularly intriguing aspect of this project is to construct and then compare the phase diagrams of the surfactants in water with the phase diagrams of the same surfactants in ionic liquids. As the study of surfactant behavior in ionic liquids is a relatively unexplored area, our investigations of the glucosides in ionic liquids will make a significant contribution to the available literature on surfactants in these green solvent systems.  <br/><br/>Since the availability of accurate phase diagrams is important to many disciplines from materials to biochemistry, this project has the potential for broad interdisciplinary impact.  Furthermore, an important objective of these investigations is the training of talented undergraduate students in the methods of research for productive careers in graduate studies or industry.  The project will continue to demonstrate and enhance the feasibility of effective collaborative student-faculty research in the co-principal investigators\' laboratories at a primarily undergraduate institution leading to publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at scientific venues.\nThe mathematics department at Harvey Mudd College in Claremont, CA has been organizing a series of annual mathematics conferences since 1999.  These conferences, unusual because the topics vary from year to year, have been designed to expose faculty, recent post-docs, graduate students and undergraduates to cutting-edge mathematics, and to enhance the Harvey Mudd College research environment by fostering interactions between its students and faculty and the participants of the conference.  Since 2004, these conferences have benefitted from NSF grants which have permitted the conference to grow and attract a national audience.  This award will continue to provide support for four plenary speakers and a contributed poster session. It will also further broaden the geographic participation in the conferences by providing travel support for graduate students and recent Ph.D.\'s, with preference given to members of under-represented groups.<br/><br/>By bringing topflight researchers to Harvey Mudd College each fall, the conferences expose participants to a wide range of mathematics. Past topics have included analysis; applied mathematics; differential geometry; applied algebra and combinatorics; mathematical biology; geometry, algebra and phylogenetic trees; scientific computing; and enumerative combinatorics. The planned topics for the conferences covered by this award are public sector operations research, nonlinear analysis, and fluid mechanics. The conferences give rise to activities and projects in mathematics courses taught at Harvey Mudd College, and many Harvey Mudd College undergraduates are in attendance. They also serve as a convenient gathering place for mathematicians and mathematics students in Southern California, fostering interaction and collaboration in several mathematical communities.<br/>With community-wide pre-conference talks that emphasize the impact and beauty of mathematics, these conferences will annually influence nearly 200 people, encouraging mathematical research while also strengthening public awareness of mathematics.\nAbstract:<br/><br/>This REU site seeks to increase the number of students choosing to pursue graduate studies, and ultimately careers, in computer science.  The participants experience the most compelling aspects of  <br/>graduate school in a ten week summer program.   The program nurtures  <br/>student interest in research by engaging students in the entire research process, beginning with a search of the literature, reading prior research, selecting the specific problems to be studied, working on those problems, and preparing the results for publication.  The program develops research skills and improves written and oral communication skills in order to prepare students for success in graduate school.<br/><br/>The research topics fall under the broadly scoped area of computer systems.  Topics include computer networking, robot vision, computer music systems, and memory management, among others.  Each project involves two or three students under the close direction of a faculty adviser whose expertise is in that area.  In addition, students participate in a number of whole-group curricular and co-curricular activities.  Among these activities are workshops on research methods, ethics, applying to graduate schools, careers in computer science, and technical topics.<br/><br/>This program seeks to involve students from a variety of backgrounds and particularly those from schools with limited access to research opportunities.  The project includes a comprehensive local and national recruiting-outreach program.\nProject Abstract<br/>CRI-CI-ADDO-EN:<br/>National File System Trace Repository<br/><br/><br/> One of the most effective ways to study computer file systems is through the use of traces, which are records of the actual operations that a computer performed on a hard disk or a set of files.  For example, a trace might show that a user launched a word processor on a document, saved it three times over a period of 20 minutes, used a Web browser to retrieve an image from the Internet, inserted that image into the document, and saved it a fourth time.  By analyzing traces of this sort, researchers can determine how to design file systems to provide users with optimal performance and reliability.  In addition, researchers can replay a trace to reproduce the activity generated by a live user, allowing them to test new designs without the expense and difficulty of experimenting with real subjects.<br/><br/> However, collecting traces is itself a challenging activity, so once a researcher has acquired a trace, it is desirable to share it with others.  Trace sharing also allows diverse researchers to test their systems under consistent, reproducible conditions, so that different ideas can be compared and evaluated fairly.  Unfortunately, there has never been a reliable source of traces, so that researchers have often been forced to use ad hoc methods to test their systems, or to use outdated traces that aren\'t representative of modern computer systems.<br/><br/> To alleviate these difficulties, we are building a national repository of file system traces.  The repository is designed so that it can eventually hold every trace that has ever been collected, both historical and modern, and so that it will be easy for researchers to upload, download, share, analyze, and replay any trace in the collection.  A standardized format will make traces easy to manipulate, and software tools for that purpose will be made available to researchers.<br/><br/> In the current project, NSF has provided seed funding to allow Harvey Mudd College and its collaborators to create a prototype of the repository, demonstrate its feasibility, and show that researchers will find it useful.\nRecent years have seen a diversity of curricula designed to attract students to computer science. Media, robots, games, and other contexts have brought the field to life for many students. Yet these and other innovative introductory courses are not designed to serve the distinct needs of students in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. Although STEM students require increasingly sophisticated computational capabilities, their formal training in computation, if any, often focuses on a narrow range of applications to the exclusion of fundamental and widely transferable Computational Thinking (CT) concepts and skills. <br/><br/>This project\'s hypothesis is that the computational thinking curricula for all STEM students will benefit from the insights gained from contextual "CS1" courses. Harvey Mudd College (HMC) has recently designed, deployed, and evaluated a breadth first introductory CS1 curriculum with a STEM-themed context. This work seeks to turn that course inside-out, spawning a suite of computational thinking modules that can be flexibly composed into curricula for non-CS STEM students and pre-CS-majors alike. Instead of "another CS1," the result will be resources that span STEM-serving computational-thinking courses and provide a compelling introduction to core CT ideas and skills for students with a broad range of science and engineering interests.<br/><br/>The objectives are to:<br/>1. Design and assess rich and compelling course modules that can be assembled into introductory CT courses for a variety of audiences (high school, undergraduate, and graduate level) in different areas (e.g. computer science, biology, or engineering) and at different types of institutions (e.g. liberal-arts colleges and large universities). These modules will be problem-based, using STEM-motivated labs and assignments to develop and exercise major concepts.<br/>2. Combine these modules to develop and deploy several prototype courses including introductory college computer science courses, an introductory college computation for biology course, a high school computation course, and a course for information technology graduate students.<br/>3. Disseminate modules and courses through (1) a structured deployment process that guides other schools (not directly involved in this project) in choosing appropriate modules for their contexts and (2) structured workshops, visits to other schools, and publications and talks at a number of education conferences and symposia.<br/><br/>Intellectual Merit: This work is creating a flexible, retargetable CT curriculum, grounded in but not limited by core CS topics, and aimed at students with a broad range of scientific and engineering interests. The PIs have extensive experience developing novel and engaging CS1 curricula for students outside the CS major: HMC\'s CS for Scientists course has proven successful at exciting students across STEM disciplines about how they can leverage computation in their chosen fields. Adapting this course\'s materials to a broad range of institutions is an important step in understanding how to develop the computational capabilities of all STEM students.<br/><br/>Broader Impact: This work will directly create CT curricula for five very different institutions: two large public universities, one of which serves a large minority population, one liberal arts college, one public high school and one graduate school. All five curricula will draw material from a flexible and modular set of resources that will create or inform CT courses far beyond this initial set of schools. Most importantly, these five CT courses will enable a thorough and cross-cutting assessment of the impact and relevance of CT for students throughout STEM disciplines. The approach has already shown significant improvement in increasing interest in computation among young women at Harvey Mudd College; this project\'s much wider assessment will determine how much these local successes transfer across a diversity of populations and institutions.\nWith this award from the Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) program, the Department of Chemistry at Harvey Mudd College will acquire a liquid chromatograph-ion trap mass spectrometer. It will be used in various research areas including, 1) natural product chemistry, specifically the chemotaxonomy of the soft coral genus Alcyonium, as well as chemical explorations of California endophytic fungi; 2) synthetic natural product chemistry, namely biomimetic cyclizations in the synthesis of endiandric acids; 3) organometallic chemistry, specifically catalyst design for asymmetric hydroamination; 4) organic chemistry, concerning stereocontrol in reactions of singlet oxygen; 5) the physical chemistry of liquid crystals, describing the thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric 2,7-diacyl fluorine liquid crystals; and 6) physical inorganic chemistry and materials science, focusing on experimental investigation of electronic coupling in metalloporphyrin dimers, as well as coupling and electron injection in dye-sensitized solar cells using zinc porphyrins on nanostructured zinc oxide.<br/><br/>Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used by chemists and biochemists to identify the chemical composition of a sample and its purity by measuring the mass of the molecular constituents in the sample.  Chromatography is an isolation technique that precedes the mass spectrometry analysis.  It separates a mixture into its several constituent chemicals which are then analyzed and identified by the mass spectrometer.  This modern instrumentation will improve the education and training of undergraduate students in research.  In addition to research projects at Harvey Mudd College and the Joint Sciences Department of the Claremont Colleges, the requested instrument will serve a consortium of undergraduate colleges in the area, providing much needed support to projects encompassing the study of natural products and biochemistry.\nThe goal of computational complexity theory is to determine the computational resources needed to carry out various computational tasks. The resources measured may involve hardware (such as gates used to construct a circuit, or area on a chip) or software (such as the time or space used in the execution of a program on a machine), and the tasks considered may range from simple addition of two integers to a large algebraic or geometric computation.<br/><br/>This project will deal primarily with "low level" complexity theory, in which the resources required grow modestly (at most quadratically) with the size of the task. Examples of such tasks are furnished by the arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and square-root extraction) performed by the executions of single instructions in a computer.  For these tasks, hardware-oriented resource measures are most appropriate in most cases.<br/><br/>The broader impacts of the project lie in the opportunity it will provide to explore a new model for undergraduate research. The most common model for undergraduate research is to give students problems that they may reasonably be expected to solve within the time allowed (typically an academic year for a senior thesis, or ten weeks for a summer assignment).  This project will explore a new model, wherein students are assigned the task of working on an authentic research problem (one that has resisted solution for many years, and is unlikely to be resolved with a single new stroke), with the goal of making a contribution (even a small one) that might play a role in an eventual resolution. If explored with imagination, this new model should provide a valuable complement to the established practices for undergraduate research.\nModern processors are designed to perform more tasks simultaneously, rather than to perform single tasks more quickly. These new multicore processors are powerful, but using that power is challenging; interesting problems often divide irregularly, requiring difficult and error-prone coordination among subtasks. Consequently, parallel programming is considered hard to learn and harder to do. Observationally Cooperative Multithreading (OCM) is a new approach. In programs written for cooperative multithreading (CM), subtasks take turns and execute one at a time. The CM model is well-known to rule out conflicts and to simplify programming. OCM takes these same programs but runs them on modern multicore machines, executing subtasks simultaneously when there are no conflicts. The result can be a speed and resource-utilization benefit with no extra complexity for programmers.  Potentially, OCM could make concurrency more accessible to a broad audience, including introductory students.  The research will develop OCM implementations using techniques such as Transactional Memory and Lock Inference, with the aim of fostering adoption of OCM by a large user community. Realistic benchmarks will be constructed to analyze the speed and scalability of OCM implementations, and to verify ease of programming in the OCM model.\nThis award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5). <br/><br/>Moore?s law promises consistent increasing transistor densities for the foreseeable future. However, device scaling no longer delivers the energy gains that drove the semiconductor growth of the past several decades. This has created a design paradox: more gates can now fit on a die, but cannot actually be used due to strict power limits. In this project, we will address this energy crisis through the universal application of ?near-threshold computing? (NTC), where devices operate at or near their threshold voltage to obtain 10X or higher energy efficiency improvements. To accomplish this we focus on three key challenges that to date have kept low voltage operation from widespread use: 1) 10X loss in performance, 2) 5X increase in performance variation, and 3) 5 orders of magnitude increase in functional failure. We present a synergistic approach combining methods from algorithm and architecture levels to the circuit and technology levels. We will demonstrate NTC for applications that range from sensor-based platforms which critically depend on ultra-low power (??mW) and reduced form factor (mm3) to unlock new applications, to high-performance platforms in large data-centers, which dissipate so much power that they require co-location near dedicated cooling facilities. Our end goal is to reduce national energy consumption and environmental impact by providing dramatic gains in energy efficiency while also opening up new application areas in health care by providing for in situ monitoring of biological functions with minimum intervention.\nThis award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5).<br/><br/>Nucleotide substitution is an important mechanism by which genomes change over evolutionary time. This project seeks to improve our understanding of nucleotide substitution by focusing on an aspect that is currently poorly characterized: how the context of neighboring nucleotides biases substitution. At present the best described bias effects are those due to immediately adjacent nucleotides. However, it is known that more distant nucleotides also affect substitution. The goal of the project is to develop and apply a method to systematically characterize more distant context effects. The information obtained can later be used to improve models of nucleotide substitution. Such improvements could potentially contribute to areas such as reconstructing phylogeny and inferring which parts of the genome are functional. <br/><br/>The project will contribute to the training of biologists with strong quantitative backgrounds. It will be carried out by undergraduate students at Harvey Mudd College (HMC), a selective liberal arts college focused on science and engineering. Students at the college receive unusually broad training in the physical sciences, mathematics and computer science as part of the college\'s core curriculum. Such students have a great deal to offer biology. Molecular evolution and computational biology are natural areas for them to apply their skills. This project helps introduce students to these disciplines through research opportunities and connections with coursework. Because 25% of HMC\'s graduates receive a Ph.D. within nine years of graduation, the project work will contribute to the training of a new generation of biological researchers with strong quantitative skills. An additional impact is that the software developed for this project will be distributed freely on the web.\nThe five-year project "Optimizing the Mathematics Postdoctoral Experience:  A Teaching and Research Postdoctoral Fellowship (TRPF)at Harvey Mudd College," which is cofunded by the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) and the Office of Multidisciplinary Activity (OMA) in the NSF Directorate of Mathematical and Physical Sciences,  will establish a new postdoctoral fellowship focused on the synergistic activities of teaching and research as well as connections between the two. These fellowships will emphasize engaging undergraduates in mathematical research and discovery.  Over the five-year term this program will provide support for ten postdoctoral fellows (TRPFs) and summer support for ten undergraduate research associates.  The TRPFs will develop their research with the guidance of at least one research mentor, teach an average of one course per semester in tandem with a teaching mentor, supervise a summer research student, advise a capstone research experience such as a Senior Thesis or one of Harvey Mudd College\'s industrial research-based Clinics, and participate in outreach activities and other vital departmental functions.   The Mathematics Department will make annual assessments of the TRPFs\' teaching and research progress and their preparation to enter the mathematical workforce which will be used to guide both programmatic changes and to tailor an individual work plan designed to best meet the goals and needs of the individual fellows.<br/><br/>The TRPF Program will enhance the mathematical workforce by producing high-quality teachers who will enter the academy well prepared to both pursue their own research careers and to mentor aspiring undergraduate researchers.  Their ability to engage and inspire undergraduates through the integration of teaching and research is critical for the recruitment and retention of students pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees in the mathematical sciences. By cross-training the TRPFs in one of the many departmental outreach programs they will be able to more effective promote mathematical fluency beyond the traditional college boundaries.  It is also expected that the TRPFs will remain networked with each other and the Harvey Mudd College faculty, providing a natural ongoing mentoring network, which should enhance their ability to thrive in their chosen careers in the mathematical sciences.\nA scientific symposium titled "Categorical Methods in Topology and Quantum Geometry" will take place at the National Meeting of the Society for Advancement of Chicano and Native Americans in Science<br/>(SACNAS) in Dallas, Texas, October 15-18, 2009. The two a priori disparate fields of low dimensional topology and quantum geometry have recently been related through the involvement of categorical methods.  <br/>Exciting progress has been recently made in each of these subjects independently, including the Weinstein conjecture in dimension three and Donaldson-Thomas/Gromov-Witten duality for all toric threefolds.  <br/>Important open questions motivate continued study; these include the general Weinstein conjecture, and the trilogy of equivalences between Gromov-Witten theory, Donaldson-Thomas theory and Pandharipande-Thomas theory. Central to our symposium, these fields have recently been related through their use of derived categories and categorification.  <br/>This includes the categorification of Khovanov and its many generalizations, the categorification of Donaldson-Thomas theory by Behrend and Joyce-Song and the derived categories of Pandharipande- Thomas theory. In addition, the program of Cautis and Kamnitzer shows categorification results in topology may be recast in some instances as isomorphisms of derived categories in algebraic geometry. The speakers at this symposium will announce accomplishments and also discuss new directions of research. Specifically, Renzo Cavalieri will discuss derived categories in GW and DT theories, Emille Davie will discuss applications to low dimensional topology, and Juan Ortiz- Navaro will discuss categorification, Khovanov homology and its generalizations.<br/><br/>This symposium will enable and encourage students and other scientists to pursue research in areas related to the interaction of quantum geometry and topology, provide the opportunity for scientists to interact and foster collaboration and new research, and disseminate knowledge to a wide and extraordinarily diverse audience. While the reasons for organizing a scienti&#64257;c symposium on topology and quantum geometry are many, there is additionally an acute need to do so for an audience of underrepresented minorities. There is at this time signi&#64257;cant underrepresentation of minorities in the mathematical sciences; this underrepresentation is evidently severe in both topology and quantum geometry and certainly the intersection of these subjects. There are very important questions that need to be addressed in these subjects, and it is necessary to attract a broad and diverse audience to work on these problems. Gromov-Witten theory and related fields have been extremely successful in solving outstanding problems, some over 100 years old, in several branches of mathematics and physics. Low dimensional topology is not only of basic importance in geometry and topology, but in several areas of applied mathematics as well, as highlighted in this symposium. It is predicted that underrepresented minorities will become the majority of United States Citizens in the not so distant future; as such, it is in the long term interest of topology and quantum geometry to have increased participation from members of these groups. Moreover, given the importance of these subjects to mathematics and science in general, it is in our national interest to work against the underrepresentation of minorities conducting research in these &#64257;elds.\nComputer Science (31)<br/><br/>This project involves a redesign of the software engineering course. The objective is to use games, while appealing to women as well as men. The course focuses on games as outreach. In particular, collaboration is planned with a secondary school in southern Tanzania, Africa to develop educational games. <br/><br/>Intellectual Merit: This project contributes to pedagogical research on ways to attract and retain women in Computer Science. It explores how games in the computing curriculum can serve to disrupt rather than reinforce gender stereotypes. And it provides an approach to teaching software design that makes explicit the ways in which software is a cultural artifact, one that reflects and reinforces social norms, and encourages students to understand the implications of their designs.<br/><br/>Broader Impact: The explosion of games and game building in the computer science curriculum may work in opposition to efforts to recruit and retain women. It is crucial to understand if and how this opposition works and to discover remedies. This work informs a broad range of institutions that have gaming programs. It also serves to attract women to careers in game design. And it helps train game designers who are able to serve a wider audience.\nA key issue in modern biology is to understand how the complex development of an organism is regulated at the molecular level.  The model fruit fly system (Drosophila melanogaster) studied in Dr. Drewell\'s laboratory is particularly well suited to this type of research.  In the last decade a number of Drosophila genomes have been completely sequenced, allowing us to begin analyzing the function and evolution of genetic regulatory regions.  The experiments in this project will use a combination of molecular, genetic and computational approaches to examine the interacting network of DNA regulatory sequences at critical developmental genes, the Hox genes.  As the correct pattern of expression of the Hox genes is essential for the control of cell identities in the developing embryo in all animals, the results will have very broad significance.<br/><br/>Dr. Drewell is an investigator at Harvey Mudd College (HMC).  This project will build on the strong tradition of excellence in undergraduate research and education at HMC.  Active engagement of undergraduates in research will be an integral part of the success of this project.  Special attention will continue to be given to recruiting female, minority and first-generation college student researchers, who are currently highly represented in Dr. Drewell\'s laboratory.  An additional major goal is to develop courses and tools for biology education by synthesizing a strong interdisciplinary curriculum in molecular and developmental biology, genetics and evolution in the Biology department at HMC.\n0846541<br/>N. Lape<br/><br/>This NSF award by the Chemical and Biological Separations program supports work by Professor Nancy Lape at Harvey Mudd College to improve gas separation membranes by tailoring free volume, and therefore gas separation properties, of inorganic/polymer composites.  <br/><br/>With increasing environmental awareness and rising energy costs, traditional gas separation methods such as absorption (for CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 separations) and cryogenic distillation (for N2/O2 separations) are becoming less attractive, while demand is increasing for solvent-free, energy-efficient membrane separation processes. Unfortunately, membrane processes are entirely dependent on the availability of high-performance (sufficiently high permeability and high selectivity) membrane materials that are not currently available. Recent research in nanocomposite films has shown promising gains in this area: the addition of impermeable nanoparticles to an ultra-high free volume polymer can actually increase permeability relative to the pure polymer while maintaining or increasing its selectivity. This runs counter to predictions based on the Maxwell model, long proven for micron-size particles, of permeability decreases upon the addition of impermeable particles. The improvements have been shown to be the result of free volume increases in the polymer, but the mechanism behind this free volume increase, while typically attributed to the formation of interfacial voids, is not understood. Additionally, it is unknown how this permeation enhancement depends on particle size, polymer chain rigidity, and other interfacial effects.<br/><br/>This CAREER award aims to address this deficiency by performing a systematic investigation of the following three factors: (1) primary particle and aggregate size, (2) polymer chain rigidity, and (3) interfacial effects using a four-pronged approach:  <br/><br/>(a) Composite membrane formation. A variety of materials and techniques will be used to prepare composite films including a range of particle sizes from nanoscale to microscale to examine the transition between Maxwell-type behavior and permeability enhancement; a range of polymer chain rigidity including rubbery, conventional glassy, and ultra-high free volume glassy polymers; and a range of particle surface treatments to examine interfacial effects. Permeation in previously unstudied membranes will be synthesized and examined using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) which eliminates interfacial void formation.<br/><br/>(b)Gas permeation tests. Permeation tests on all pure polymer and composite films will be run to determine the permeability and selectivity of various gases.<br/><br/>(c)  Characterization. All films will be characterized using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and density measurements to examine free volume size and distribution and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) to examine particle dispersion.<br/><br/>(d)  Molecular Modeling. The molecular-level configuration, interfacial effects, and theoretical free volume of pure polymers and polymer/inorganic nanocomposites will be modeled to illuminate the changes in molecular-level architecture that give rise to changes in free volume. While the literature abounds with molecular modeling (MM) results for pure polymers, nanocomposites are an almost entirely unexamined area for MM.<br/><br/>The main educational goals of this project are centered on two aspects: Course and Educational Method Developments and an Integrated Undergraduate Research and Multi-Tiered Mentoring Program. To address the first aspect, Challenge-Based Instruction Modules will be developed and disseminated for use in courses.  Also a new course aimed at chemistry and engineering Harvey Mudd College (HMC) undergraduates in Polymer Chemistry and Engineering is planned.  The new course will include experimental modules in the area of the proposed research. The research will be carried out entirely by undergraduate and high school researchers. The undergraduates will benefit from a multi-tiered structured mentoring program in which they are mentored by the PI, alumni, and each other, and will be trained as mentors for high school students.  Technical results and the models developed for undergraduate and high school student research and mentoring will be widely disseminated via publications and presentations.\nNon-local dynamics is an emerging interest in physics across many disciplines, from condensed matter physics to particle physics to quantum gravity. This project explores the effects of non-local dynamics as realized in the context of a certain class of string theory models of particular interest to cosmology. The string theory embedding of these models assures that the exotic frameworks encountered are physically and logically self-consistent. Yet, such non-local systems remain poorly understood, with many counter-intuitive features and apparent paradoxes. This project aims to unravel general features of non-local dynamics as they arise in this class of string theory models, and apply these results to modeling the primordial plasma of the universe. <br/><br/>The project also involves undergraduate education as an integral part. This is achieved through a two-pronged approach: (1) through the direct participation of undergraduate students in the research within a program that has already proven to be highly successful in involving undergraduate seniors in string theory research; and (2) through the development of a senior-level undergraduate course and textbook to help prepare students for competitive graduate programs in theoretical physics. The project also includes a multi-pronged community outreach component involving a web-based instructional resource, and a public lecture series on current topics at the frontier of theoretical physics.\nThe Chemical Catalysis Program supports Professor Adam R. Johnson at Harvey Mudd College who will examine enantioselective hydroamination catalysis and stereoselective polymerization of lactide, which are two areas of significant current interest. The proposed research will examine the hydroamination reaction, which is the addition of a nitrogen-hydrogen bond across a carbon-carbon multiple bond. The highly atom-economical method produces substituted amines that are valuable synthetic targets. A number of metals catalyze this reaction but there are no general methods for it. The asymmetric hydroamination of aminoallenes using titanium complexes of bidentate aminoalcohol ligands gives good regioselectivity, but poor stereoselectivity. The corresponding tantalum complexes have recently been shown to be more stereoselective. The PI and his coworkers will synthesize novel chiral ligands tethered to a chiral amino-alcohol and rapidly screen them, synthesize and study titanium and tantalum complexes with these chiral ligands, and perform catalytic hydroaminations with tethered and untethered ligands. The chiral amino-alcohol complexes will also be used to polymerize the biologically derived monomer, lactide. As a biodegradable polymer based on a renewable feedstock, the development of efficient catalysts for the synthesis of polylactide with varying tacticity is of great importance. If successful, both areas of research will have a transformative impact.<br/><br/>With the support of the Chemical Catalysis Program in the Chemistry Division at the National Science Foundation, Dr. Adam R. Johnson\'s continued research on hydroamination will have an impact on teaching at the frontiers of organometallic chemistry and will extend to a wide community of inorganic chemistry educators. The results from this research will affect Professor Johnson\'s teaching of inorganic and organometallic chemistry at Harvey Mudd College and his participation in the NSF-funded VIPEr project (, an on online teaching and networking site for inorganic chemistry. Undergraduate students will have an opportunity to examine modern problems in synthetic organometallic chemistry, synthesize and purify the ligands and complexes, grow crystals, and perform the catalytic reactions. Students will gain experience in creative problem solving and teamwork, and will present their research results both locally and at a national American Chemical Society Meeting.\nThis award from the Division of Chemistry (CHE) supports a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site led by Karl Haushalter and Adam Johnson at Harvey Mudd College for three summers, commencing in 2010.  The site will support ten students per summer in a ten week program.  Each year, a minimum of two students will be recruited from Mt. San Antonio College (Mt. SAC) -- the largest single campus community college in the state of California.  Faculty from Mt. SAC will work on research, as well.  The research projects span the sub-disciplines of chemistry, including analytical, biological, inorganic, organic, physical and theoretical chemistry.  Sample projects include:  (1)  the study of the formation and control of nanoscopic two-dimensional structures in diblock copolymers;  (2)  the theoretical study of the electronic coupling element in electron transfer reactions and applications of density functional theory;  (3)  the study of the Claisen rearrangement in trimethylsilys substituted allylic alcohols;  (4) the study of the DNA glycosylase initiated repair of covalently modified nucleosomes;  (5) the study of the catalytic asymmetric hydroamination of substituted aminoallenes;  (6) the spectral characterization of green surfactant phase diagrams;  (7) the discovery of new secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi grown in co-culture;  (8) the systematic thermodynamic study of a library of mesomorphic liquid crystalline compounds;  (9) the study of dye-sensitized solar cells using porphyrin dyes on nanostructured zinc oxide; and  (10) the biomimetic and bio-friendly synthesis of biologically-active compounds.     In addition to conducting research during the summer, the students participating in this program will participate in a number of professional development activities, with a special emphasis on communication.  In addition to research, students will work with disadvantaged, first-generation college bound students affiliated with the Upward Bound program.  <br/><br/>Young scientists need exposure to modern research methods and tools as part of their training.  This REU site aims to provide cutting-edge research training in chemical problems of relevance in a broad range of chemistry sub-disciplines.  Recruiting partnerships will be developed with a regional community college with a large population of underrepresented students.  The diverse student cohort participating in research at this site will be well-prepared for graduate school, and eventual employment as part of the country\'s technical workforce.\nThe science of thin liquid films has developed rapidly in recent years, with applications to coating flows, biofluids, microfluidic engineering, and medicine. In this project, we will focus on three groups of free-surface flow problems using a combination of mathematical modeling, analysis and numerical simulation, coupled to carefully chosen quantitative experiments. The three areas are: (i) flows driven by surface tension gradients, (ii) the role of inertia in regimes where lubrication is inadequate to model thin film flow, and (iii) vibrating thin films. Advances in our understanding of theoretical issues surrounding modeling these flows, and the exploration of new features of the flows through experiments will have direct applications to improving control and reliability of manufacturing processes in high-tech industries and to biomedical systems.<br/> <br/>The flow of thin liquid layers or films occurs in contexts including industrial coating flows, microfluidic engineering, and medicine. In this project, we focus on properties of thin liquid films such as the role of surface tension in driving flow, and the behavior of thin layers under rapid vibration.  Surface tension is an important mechanism in the dynamics of mucus layers in the lung, and is central to the treatment of premature infants by surfactant replacement therapy. The control of thin layer flow, through the temperature dependence of surface tension or using rapid vibrations, has the potential to eliminate damaging nonuniformities in industrial coating processes. Each of these areas and applications pose substantial scientific challenges that will be met with a collaborative effort between mathematicians and physicists, exploring theoretical and experimental methods in tandem. The project includes graduate and undergraduate student training in an interdisciplinary research program that<br/>will develop coordinated advanced skills in physics, engineering, and applied mathematics.\nRUI: Triangulations, Set Intersections, Fair Division, and Voting (DMS - 1002938)<br/><br/>The investigator\'s prior work has introduced methods from combinatorial topology and discrete geometry to the study of fair division questions and voting problems. The current project will support the the development of the mathematics behinds these tools and the solution of several combinatorial questions that have been motivated by his prior work, including: (1) the study of triangulations of cubes and simplotopes, (2) the further development of combinatorial fixed point theorems and constructive solutions, and (3) the development of set intersection theorems and associated applications in social choice theory and fair division. This project will also support the active participation of undergraduates in this research.<br/><br/>Informally speaking, a "fair division" problem asks: how can we divide a set of goods among parties in such a way that each can be satisfied according to some notion of fairness.  Social choice theory asks: how does a society make a group choice (e.g., in an election) in a way that best aggregates the preferences of all the individuals?  Questions of fairness and social choice are of interest to political scientists, economists, and game theorists, and motivate interesting mathematical questions.  The space of preferences and the preference sets of each person are often naturally geometric sets (e.g., convex, connected, polyhedral), and the desired solution is often at the intersection of such sets.  This project aims to prove mathematical theorems (e.g., about set intersections and triangulations of polyhedra) that have direct bearing on important problems in the social sciences involving voting and fairness.\nIn this project funded by the Chemical Synthesis Program of the Chemistry Division, Professor David Vosburg of the Department of Chemistry at Harvey Mudd College (HMC) will employ biomimetic and bio-friendly strategies for the syntheses of antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and antitubercular natural products as well as unnatural derivatives. Efficient and flexible routes will be developed that should result in the first synthetic preparations of each of these bioactive compounds. Recently developed methods for forming C-C and C=C bonds feature prominently in this work, as do microwave-promoted cross-coupling reactions. Central to the overall strategy is the use of stereoselective, catalytic cross-coupling reactions to directly trigger biomimetic polyene cyclization cascades. Theoretical studies will also be carried out to determine and measure the factors that control selectivity in cascades that have multiple possible outcomes. The broader impacts include training undergraduate students, broadening participation through the inclusion of community college and high school researchers on the project, building HMC partnerships with Mount San Antonio College and Upward Bound, and contributing to the development of new green chemistry.  <br/><br/>This work will result in innovative synthetic routes to medicinally useful compounds using newly developed methodologies, the possible discovery of novel bioactive molecules, and deeper insight into biomimetic cyclizations.  Successful results should have an impact on a variety of areas: biology, organic synthesis, theoretical chemistry, and the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. This project will showcase green chemical principles when possible and will provide valuable training experiences for students from Harvey Mudd College, Mount San Antonio College, and local high schools, including those from groups historically underrepresented in the sciences.\nThis engineering education research award is given to support broadening participation in the Mudd Design Workshop series that advances engineering design education.  Travel supplements are awarded to allow participation by faculty from under-represented groups or who serve at minority serving institutions, and research on the effectiveness of design workshops on changing how design is taught will be conducted.  By broadening participation in the workshops, the engineering design education community may become more able to develop engineering design courses to be more effective to a broader range of schools and students.  <br/><br/>Much of the technical infrastructure on which we depend has been designed by engineers.  Design is a critical element of educating future engineers; the ability to design new products, services, and processes is a key engineering skill that is much needed to move to an innovation-driven economy.  The Mudd Design Workshops have brought together design education practitioners to network, share best practices, and share advances in teaching design practices to engineering students.  This award will help to understand the impact this workshop series has played in driving design education, as well as broaden participation to a wider range of students.\nThe Harvey Mudd College REU brings 10 undergraduates to Claremont in order to engage them in research and encourage graduate study in computer science. The program provides a microcosm of the graduate experience through a set of four projects under a broadly-scoped systems umbrella. The first develops algorithms for estimating cophylogenetic trees based on biological host/parasite data. Students\' algorithms have been encapsulated in a software package named Jane, currently in use by several biological research groups. The second effort investigates approaches for automatically creating - and helping humans create - jazz. Its Impro-visor software has thousands of users and supports both the jazz and computational music communities. The third project creates efficient algorithms for memory management within garbage-collected computer languages such as Java, and the fourth project tests machine-learning and computer-vision-based algorithms that improve the state-of-the-art of performance of low-cost robot platforms, such as the iRobot Create.<br/><br/>In addition to the contributions of these four projects within each of their domains of specialization, the REU\'s environment emphasizes the benefits of pursuing CS at the graduate level for participants who had not previously considered graduate work. Challenging research problems prompt students\' guided development of research skills: investigation, presentation, and publication. Introductions by advisors transition into student-led talks and culminate with publications and conference experiences during or after the summer.  Although proud of the academic contributions of the REU participants, the program\'s most important impact lies in its cultivation of the next generation of CS researchers.\nHarvey Mudd College proposes to address student misconceptions about computing by engaging middle school students in a semester-long software development project carried out by college students. The goal of the software project is one of those 21st century computer science artifacts that middle school students can relate to: an educational computer game. The proposed collaborations also works to serve existing needs of college and middle school faculty, facilitates teaching and enhances learning at both levels with very little overhead. For college faculty teaching game design and development, the project aims to fix the gender dynamics of gaming. Through the program, middle school teachers, regardless of technical competency, can engage their students in devising technological tools for their own learning. It also provides a context for authentic communication between middle school and college students, which may motivate and improve foundational literacy as well as content-related vocabulary. In short, the program delivers concrete benefits to middle school and college faculty and students, benefits that are unrelated to computer science recruitment, while at the same time fostering interest in the field.\nToday\'s multicore processors are often underutilized because programmers lack tools and techniques to program them effectively.  To understand the problem, imagine that a microprocessor is like a restaurant kitchen.  For years, processor designers improved execution speed, replacing the chef with one who can work even faster.  Because this strategy has physical limits, hardware vendors are turning to multicore CPUs, akin to multiple chefs.  Some problems adapt easily to multiple cores; if you need to bake 16 identical cakes, it\'s easy to use 16 chefs in separate kitchens (i.e., symmetric parallelism).  But if you need to prepare a complex banquet (i.e., irregular parallelism), the many tasks can require significant coordination. One mistake (e.g., two chefs using the same bowl at the same time) and the results may be disastrously wrong.  Experience has shown that few programmers can foresee and avoid all possible coordination issues ahead of time.  This project develops the approach Observationally Cooperative Multithreading (OCM) for solving problems on parallel machines.  OCM makes it easier to write correct code, while allowing speedup on from multiple processing cores. Because of its simplicity, OCM could make parallelism and concurrency more accessible to a broad audience, including introductory students.<br/><br/>Specifically, in programs written for the well-understood cooperative multithreading (CM) model, subtasks take turns and execute one at a time. This approach rules out conflicts between subtasks and simplifies programming and debugging. OCM takes these same programs but runs them on modern multicore machines, executing subtasks simultaneously (and hence more efficiently) when there are no conflicts.  This research, extending preliminary work on OCM, will involve 18 undergraduate students over three years.  They will help design, develop and evaluate practical OCM implementations using techniques such as Transactional Memory and Lock Inference, addressing the concerns both of the parallel-programming community (who value demonstrated performance) and of the CS education community (who value ease of use and desperately need a simpler introduction to concurrency and parallelism).\nHarvey Mudd College will adapt exemplary educational resources to create MyCS, a CS curriculum whose goal is to develop positive computational identities among middle-school students. A positive computational identity subsumes self-efficacy, enjoyment, and future engagement with creating computation. The project\'s approach existing pedagogical resources into three distinct MyCS variations. Inspired by UCLA\'s high-school course, Exploring Computer Science (ECS), the first variation broadly explores computational concepts and skills. The second variation is a depth-based development of programming skills through Scratch and web technologies, adapting several successful middle- and high-school courses. The third variation is a hybrid that punctuates skill-building in Scratch and web programming with curricular breaks contextualizing those skills. The project investigates how teachers and students respond to these different MyCS realizations. The project team will compare results within and among the primary partnering school district, Pomona Unified in Pomona, CA, along with our two secondary partnering districts, Lihue, HI and San Bernardino, CA. In order to maximize the number of students reached, the project focuses on middle-school teacher development through summer workshops and academic-year support.<br/><br/>Computation has become a crucial component of every modern endeavor. It has not, however, become a component of every modern student\'s identity. That is, the number of students who feel that "computation is something that people like me create" lags significantly behind the demand for computational creativity, both now and in the foreseeable future. Because of their pivotal role in early identity-formation, the middle-school years provide a window of opportunity to build a positive computational identity and to prime the pump for the ambitious CS10k project. To that end, this project develops, deploys, and assesses several variations of a middle-years computer-science curriculum, MyCS. The project team will build MyCS communities within targeted schools in three districts, each with a large majority of students from a distinct group underrepresented in STEM fields. Two key benefits will result. First, those communities will continue to develop computationally confident students even after the project concludes. Second,  assessments will cull less effective variations and facets of MyCS, leaving a ready-to-go curriculum that will succeed in further regional deployment and will be prepared for larger-scale vetting, national trials, and broader adaptations.\nThis project is developing underwater acoustic tracking strategies for locating and tracking particular species of tagged sharks that have long distance migratory paths. A unique aspect of this project is that receivers will be onboard a team of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), enabling them to cooperatively estimate the shark position, thereby allowing the AUVs to track and follow the shark for sustained periods of time. The AUV team\'s mobility and ability to modify its own path in response to shark movement allows it to obtain in-situ measurements that cannot be obtained from static receiver systems typically used for monitoring shark behavior.<br/>  <br/>Due to its interdisciplinary nature, this project will make contributions in both Engineering (AUV autonomy and control) and Biological Sciences (shark behavior characterization, life history, and habitat utilization). New approaches to state estimation are being developed. A key to creating a successful estimator for this application will be incorporating kinematic and dynamic models of shark locomotion. Novel control strategies are also necessary given the difficulty of tracking sharks that can travel at high speed. Tracking controllers don\'t typically consider the additional constraint of maintaining a separation distance to ensure the AUV doesn\'t affect shark behavior. The end goal of conducting shark tracking experiments will be the first of its kind. Additionally, much merit will be derived from the actual data the experiments yield. Specifically, the engineering within this project is driven by the goal of determining the relationships between local ocean environment variables (e.g. temperatures, current velocities) and shark behavior (e.g. migration path choices, habitat use). While there is considerable knowledge of shark physiology and behavior, there are no fine scale time studies of shark motion and its associated energy use within different behaviors.<br/><br/>This work includes developing new AUV sampling technologies that can be generalized and applied to studying various forms of marine life, and in addition to the ecological contributions, the research is applicable to other tasks associated with safe marine navigation, homeland security, and the military.\nA central question in neuroscience is understanding the mechanisms by which genes influence behavior. Using model organisms that have genes that can be easily manipulated is critical to gaining a better understanding of how genetic polymorphisms contribute to complex phenotypes. Past work has shown that the innate food preferences of the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, vary in different strains. The project focuses on understanding how natural genetic polymorphisms influence food preferences as well as the neuronal basis of food preference. The project has three aims: 1) determine the mechanism by which the identified F-box gene modifies bacterial preference behavior; 2) identify additional causative genes underlying other previously determined QTLs; 3) determine the neuronal circuits underlying discrimination among complex odors released by a wide range of bacteria likely to be found in the natural environment of C. elegans. This project will provide insights into the genetic and neuronal mechanisms by which C. elegans generates its responses to different complex stimuli, and into the relationship between the genome and behavior.<br/><br/><br/>This project will study how genes can influence complex behaviors such as food preference using the C. elegans model organism. The research will be conducted primarily by undergraduates at Harvey Mudd College.  Students will participate in all aspects of the research, including designing and conducting experiments, analyzing data, presenting their work at on-campus research symposia as well as national scholarly meetings and preparing their work for publication.\nHarvey Mudd College will convene expert computer science (CS) educators to collaboratively document refine, and publish pedagogical content knowledge resources related to ninety topics in computer science.  The central goal of the project is to document, validate, and promote CS pedagogical content knowledge, the combined knowledge of both the CS learner and CS content that enables an expert teacher to teach well.  Resources developed will enable novice teachers to perform the actions of a more advanced CS teacher, such as incorporating new teaching practices, anticipating students? difficulties, and building upon students\' strengths. In addition to this practical contribution, this research will identify open research questions in CS education.\nThe most significant performance and energy bottlenecks in a computer are<br/>often caused by the storage system, because the gap between storage device<br/>and CPU speeds is greater than in any other part of the machine.  Big data<br/>and new storage media only make things worse, because today\'s systems are<br/>still optimized for legacy workloads and hard disks.  The team at Stony<br/>Brook University, Harvard University, and Harvey Mudd College has shown that<br/>large systems are poorly optimized, resulting in waste that increases<br/>computing costs, slows scientific progress, and jeopardizes the nation\'s<br/>energy independence.<br/><br/>First, the team is examining modern workloads running on a variety of<br/>platforms, including individual computers, large compute farms, and a<br/>next-generation infrastructure, such as Stony Brook\'s Reality Deck, a<br/>massive gigapixel visualization facility.  These workloads produce combined<br/>performance and energy traces that are being released to the community.<br/><br/>Second, the team is applying techniques such as statistical feature<br/>extraction, Hidden Markov Modeling, data-mining, and conditional likelihood<br/>maximization to analyze these data sets and traces.  The Reality Deck is<br/>used to visualize the resulting multi-dimensional performance/energy data<br/>sets.  The team\'s analyses reveal fundamental phenomena and principles that<br/>inform future designs.<br/><br/>Third, the findings from the first two efforts are being combined to develop<br/>new storage architectures that best balance performance and energy under<br/>different workloads when used with modern devices, such as solid-state<br/>drives (SSDs), phase-change memories, etc.  The designs leverage the team\'s<br/>work on storage-optimized algorithms, multi-tier storage, and new optimized<br/>data structures.\nFor more than three decades, the slowest and most limiting component in computer systems has been the disk-based file system.  For that reason, file systems have consistently been a critical area of computer systems research.  One of the most useful techniques for studying file systems is to collect, analyze, and replay detailed activity traces.  In the past, traces have been used for retrospective analysis and as a source of workloads for both simulation and live experiments.  However, many file-system studies have been handicapped by a lack of publicly available trace data, often causing experiments to be performed using inadequate data sets.  In many cases, those data sets are not published for use by other researchers, making comparative studies difficult or impossible.<br/><br/>In this work, the PIs are operating and expanding IOTTA Trace Repository (after the Storage Networking Industry Association\'s I/O Tools, Traces, and Analysis Working Group) that makes standardized, high-quality data sets available to researchers worldwide.  This repository is widely known in the research community as the most reliable source of file system and I/O trace data, and has proven its worth by providing data sets to hundreds of research projects worldwide each year. The project involves defining standard formats and then creating tools to make it easy to work with traces, despite their immense size. Because the trace repository is inherently a community effort, it is supervised by an advisory panel of experienced researchers.\nCollaborative Research: An Experimental Study of Relativistic, Stochastic Heating of Electrons During the Irradiation of Wavelength-scale Plasmas by a Strong-Laser Field<br/>A renewal proposal from PIs T. Ditmire (University of Texas) and T. Donnelly (Harvey Mudd College)<br/><br/>Scientific Merit<br/><br/>This grant supports a collaboration between Prof. Ditmire at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) and Prof. Donnelly at Harvey Mudd College (HMC), an undergraduate institution. We will investigate mechanisms by which high-intensity laser pulses deposit energy into matter.  While the nature of intense laser interactions with atoms, molecules, and solids has been studied for many years, exactly how intense laser pulses interact with objects that are of a spatial scale comparable to the light\'s wavelength (less than a millionth of a meter) is largely unexplored.  We will focus a 20 TW laser - a laser with nearly ten times the power of that on the entire US electrical grid - onto wavelength-scale targets and study the resulting electron and ions energies to study the mechanisms by which laser energy is absorbed by the target.   The scientific merit of this work rests in filling this gap in our knowledge of physics, and in developing improved x-ray and neutron sources.  <br/><br/>Broader Impact<br/><br/>The broader scientific impacts of this research rest in advancing the understanding of high-intensity laser interactions with a class of targets not previously well explored.  Application of these studies may aid in the development of improved x-ray sources for radiography and time-resolved diffraction, or compact neutron sources for imaging other systems.  The broader educational impact of this work is found in the training that both graduate and undergraduate students will receive.  Our work represents a unique collaboration in which an undergraduate group is directly and critically involved in strong-field-physics research, a field which is prohibitively resource intensive for an undergraduate research program to pursue alone.  The undergraduates funded by this grant will have the opportunity to do research at HMC, travel to UT in the summers to participate in research using equipment they have developed, and travel to conferences to present their work to the scientific community.  Our collaboration will continue to be an effective way to motivate undergraduates to seek advanced degrees in science.\nAn inverted, or "flipped," classroom reverses the paradigm of traditional lecture courses by delivering lectures outside of class -- by means such as videos or screencasts -- and using class meeting time for instructor-mediated active learning. This format has the potential to transform science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education by increasing student time spent with the most effective teaching techniques (i.e., varieties of active learning) without sacrificing material coverage or educational scaffolding. Many educators are beginning to flip their classrooms, but limited data on learning gains are currently available. With the rising popularity of teaching via online videos, there is an urgent need to assess the effectiveness of approaches that incorporate this technology.<br/><br/>The investigators are rigorously examining the impact of four instructors inverting three STEM courses, in chemistry, engineering, and mathematics, by measuring student learning gains. The hypothesis is that increased student learning will arise primarily because of the additional time that students will have with instructors actively working on meaningful tasks in class. If this hypothesis proves true, it will have implications for institutions that are seeking to push more instruction online, including Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), where instructor-student interaction is limited. In addition, because this study involves three different disciplines, the results should be applicable across STEM fields and institutions.<br/><br/>The strength of the study design is threefold: (1) the use of direct assessment measures specific to each of the three courses/disciplines, in addition to indirect assessment measures; (2) comparison of control and experimental sections offered simultaneously (to reduce student demographic variability) using the same instructor (to limit instructor bias); and (3) direct assessment of learning gains and application both within the course and in downstream courses to determine whether learning gains persist.<br/><br/>By elucidating the role of classroom inversion in STEM education, this study is aiding other STEM instructors in course design. By rigorously examining the effectiveness of the flipped classroom across three STEM fields and four instructors, the study is providing evidence-based recommendations to STEM educators via publications in peer-reviewed literature, online communities, and presentations at relevant conferences.<br/><br/>The project is also offering two workshops to train faculty on how to achieve the most effective aspects of the flipped-classroom experience. A detailed website with examples, study results, and tips for STEM educators on flipping the classroom enables a wide audience to benefit from this work.\nABSTRACT<br/>Most of the cells within one\'s body are in one of the following states:  they either keep dividing to generate more cells, which is called the undifferentiated state; or they assume their final fate as specific types of cells, such as a skin cell or a bone cell, and they are called differentiated.  For a body to function properly, all the cells need to be kept in their respective mode.  If undifferentiated cells differentiate at the wrong time, there would be too many or too few cells to carry out the function of the specific organ.  On the other hand, if differentiated cells randomly become undifferentiated and start dividing again, they can grow into cancers.  Therefore, it is important to learn how cells are kept in one state, or how they switch between the two states, when the undifferentiated cells are allowed to grow in numbers.  The goal of this research is to answer these questions in plants.  This is because nearly all organs in higher plants are derived from the structures called meristems, within which the continuous presence of stem cells serves as the source of development, after germination.  In addition, differentiated plant cells can dedifferentiate and form meristems.  For example, one can use plant cuttings to grow new plants. And most importantly, it has been shown that many basic mechanisms controlling cell division and differentiation are similar in most organisms.  Recent studies show that for stem cells and undifferentiated cells to divide, the organism needs to have sufficient nutrients, including simple sugars.  This project investigates how metabolic sugars control the decision by plant stem cells to divide.  The successful completion of this work will elucidate new components in plant meristem regulation, and lead to subsequent studies that will be aimed at linking developmental signals and nutrient sensing with the final cell cycle decisions in the meristematic tissues. <br/><br/>Broader Impacts: The work proposed in this study answers one of the most fundamental questions in tissue proliferation in plants, and the results from this study can potentially lead to better understanding of mechanisms controlling tissue proliferation in all multicellular organisms. Thus, this project has enormous potential to address a number of priority national needs. The results from this study will be published in scientific journals and presented at research conferences, and the plant materials generated from this study will be made available for the research community.  During the course of the described project, broad and systemic training will be provided to both graduate and undergraduate students, with an emphasis on involving minority students.  Additional efforts will be made to foster high school students for their interest in science and research during the summer months.\nPeriodic migration patterns can be found throughout the natural world. Examples of periodic movements have been observed in humans, terrestrial and aquatic animals, insects, even bacteria. Understanding such patterns can provide researchers with essential information to making decisions that affect environment, health, finances, and safety. Developing better tools for accurately measuring periodic movements is essential for developing more sophisticated movement models. This project focuses on the development of a mobile, multi-robot sensing system capable of monitoring individuals and populations that share common behaviors resulting in periodic movement patterns. The project uses multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for monitoring, tracking, and modeling fish populations in their coastal habitat. The specific goals of the project are to (1) develop mathematical models of a population\'s periodic migratory motion, (2) develop strategies based on these models for real-time estimation of the state of individual\'s and the population, (3) construct multi-robot control strategies for tracking populations, and (4) conduct continuous monitoring of fish populations using AUVs. To accomplish these goals, a multi-AUV system is deployed to autonomously track and follow acoustic tagged fish populations in Big Fisherman?s Cove in Catalina Island. This test site is a Marine Protected Area abundant with several species of fish that follow periodic migration patterns. Results from experiments are expected to validate the system and generate models that are useful to marine biologists and policy makers.\nReconciliation analysis is a fundamental method in the study of species and genes, hosts and parasites, and geographical areas and species. While these applications are different, the underlying mathematical and computational problems are analogous.  Genes and species interact through complex evolutionary processes such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and gene loss. Parasites and their hosts coevolve through processes including both contemporaneous and independent speciation, host switch, and extinction. And, species and their geographical habitats interact over geological time scales through vicariance, sympatric speciation, dispersal, and extinction. Consequently, the phylogenetic trees for genes and species, parasites and hosts, and species and their geographic regions are inherently incongruent.  This research will develop new algorithms, visualization methods, and software tools for studying the evolutionary histories of pairs of entities such as genes and species, hosts and parasites, and species and their geographical habitats and also help to train the next generation of researchers.<br/><br/>Genes and species interact through complex evolutionary processes such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and gene loss. Parasites and their hosts coevolve through processes including both contemporaneous and independent speciation, host switch, and extinction. And, species and their geographical habitats interact over geological time scales through vicariance, sympatric speciation, dispersal, and extinction. Consequently, the phylogenetic trees for genes and species, parasites and hosts, and species and their geographic regions are inherently incongruent.  Phylogenetic tree reconciliation seeks to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of pairs of related entities by positing the evolutionary events that explain their incongruence.  Traditional maximum parsimony methods for tree reconciliation require the user to select costs for each type of evolutionary event.  These cost parameters are notoriously difficult to estimate and their values can substantially affect the results and conclusions.  This approach uses a Pareto-optimal methodology that does not require the user to select event costs a priori, thereby providing a systematic view of the set of all possible optimal reconciliations.  This work will ultimately result in software tools with applications across the life sciences including genomics, parasitology, virology, and biogeography.  In addition, this project will involve a substantial number of undergraduates, thereby helping prepare the next generation of researchers in computational biology.\nThis award funds the research activities of Professor Vatche Sahakian at Harvey Mudd College. The project addresses fundamental questions at the boundary of our knowledge involving general relativity and quantum mechanics, in short, quantum gravity.  The proposal explores several keys ideas in string theory and quantum gravity: the accounting of information in black holes, and the understanding of black hole surface dynamics.  The accounting of information in black holes has been a topic of great discussion recently, since black hole dynamics seem to violate some basic principles of quantum mechanics involving the destruction of information, and black hole surface dynamics have recently shed light on possible resolutions of this conundrum.   Hence, the research addresses fundamental questions in two general areas of theoretical physics: scrambling of information in quantum information theory, and black hole physics in quantum gravity.<br/><br/>The accomplishments expected from the project are: A better understanding of the mechanics of information scrambling in black holes; A better understanding of black hole evaporation and the details of entanglement evolution in the process of transferring information from a black hole to the outside; A better understanding of the nature of the black hole horizon; The development of new highly multi-threaded algorithms in computational physics as applied to understanding black hole dynamics in string theory. An extensive undergraduate research program is part of the proposal, including: a course development component for an undergraduate course on modern topics in theoretical physics, providing students with solid foundations for graduate school; and the associated preparation of an undergraduate textbook on classical field theory.\nThis funding renews a Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) site at Harvey Mudd College. The site brings 10 undergraduates in order to engage them in research and encourage graduate study in computer science. The intellectual focus of the site is research in computer systems. The program provides a microcosm of the graduate experience through four broadly-scoped systems projects.  Students have a chance to gain experience in all aspects of the research process, including its social aspects. The site focuses on recruiting a sufficiently diverse pool of students, including women and underrepresented minorities.<br/><br/>The intellectual merit of the proposal rests with the leadership of an experienced team of mentors with excellent expertise and experience in the research areas. The site focuses on four main projects. The first project develops algorithms for estimating cophylogenetic trees based on biological host/parasite data. Students\' work is encapsulated in a software package named Jane, currently in use by dozens of biology research groups. The second effort investigates approaches for automatic synthesis of music scores, furthering our understanding of computational music research. It leverages the Impro-Visor software, which has many thousands of users. The third project explores program analyses to support new, accessible domain-specific languages, secure information flow in industry-standard languages such as Javascript, and visualization tools for both sides of that programming spectrum. The fourth project tests machine-learning and computer vision-based algorithms that improve the state-of-the-art of performance of low-cost robots, such as sub-$300 quadcopters and laser-guided wheeled platforms.<br/><br/>The broader impacts include the site\'s emphasis on the broad human and research impacts of pursuing computer science at the graduate level -- especially for participants who had not previously considered graduate work. Challenging research problems prompt students\' guided development of research skills: investigation, presentation, and publication. One-on-one introductions by advisors transition to student-led talks and culminate with publications and conference experiences during or after the summer. The program\'s most important impact is its cultivation of the next generation of creative and enthusiastic computer science researchers. The evaluation plan and the student research artifact archiving plan should contribute to educational research on effective structures for involving undergraduate students in research.\nThis action funds an NSF Postdoctoral Research Fellowship in Biology for FY 2015, Research Using Biological Collections. The fellowship supports a research and training plan for the Fellow to take transformative approaches to grand challenges in biology that employ biological collections in highly innovative ways.  The title of the research plan for this fellowship to Michael Harvey is "Assessing the importance of plumage divergence within species for the evolution of plumage diversity across birds." The host institution for this fellowship is the University of Michigan, and the sponsoring scientist is Dr. Daniel Rabosky <br/> <br/>The research focuses on connecting variation among individuals within species to differences across species. Individuals within a species often differ greatly in genetic make-up (genotype) as well as appearance (phenotype). Some of these differences are associated with geography such that individuals from one region are readily distinguishable from those from another region. It is unclear, however, what the implications of this geographic variation are over longer evolutionary timescales. Do species with greater variation tend to produce more species or last longer than species with limited variation? The fellowship research is assessing whether the pattern and rate of phenotypic divergence within bird species predicts patterns or rates of phenotypic diversification across species. Using digital photography and measurements from computer vision, data on phenotypic variation in birds are being gathered from museum specimens at the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan and other museums as needed. Estimates are then made of evolutionary history using genetic data also gathered from collections to model the history of phenotype evolution both within and across species. These studies reveal what correlations exist between phenotypic divergence within species and phenotypic diversification among species and represent one of the first comparative analysis of phenotypic divergence within and across species at a large scale.  Then it can be determined what types of variation within a species have lasting impacts on the evolutionary trajectory of its descendants. <br/> <br/>Training goals include gaining expertise in using digital imagery and computer vision to quantify phenotypes. Educational outreach to undergraduate students involves them in using museum collections, conducting high-throughput digital photography, training computer vision algorithms, and learning genetic techniques.\nThis International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) project aims to develop an Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) system for intelligent shipwreck search, mapping and visualization. The proposed system will improve on current approaches to marine archeology, and in doing so develop novel techniques that can be applied to a general class of robot exploration tasks. First, an investigation will be launched into probabilistic algorithms that identify regions of high likelihood of containing unexplored shipwrecks that offline and online AUV planning algorithms can use to maximize information gain when searching for wrecks. Second, the development of visualization techniques dedicated to surface reconstruction that merge side scanning sonar and stereo image disparity maps while incorporating volume visualizations of marine site science data. Third, and finally, these techniques will be applied in actual AUV shipwreck search experiments in previously unexplored and under-explored areas of the Mediterranean. <br/> <br/>The robotic exploration technology developed in this project will be applicable to a wide range of applications in archaeology, oceanography, biology, homeland security, and defense. The Principal Investigators and student participants will disseminate research findings via publications and professional conferences, and to local community members and  public internet portal. A digital archive of sites will be created for the archeological community. This project aims to use the research findings to introduce these robotic technologies to a broad audience including elementary school children in both the US and Malta, and especially to groups typically underrepresented in computer science and engineering.  As part of the project, robotics workshops will be run at elementary schools located in Malta and Sicily.\nWorldwide, humans and countless other species are dependent on coral reefs for shelter, sustenance and livelihoods. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide is causing the world\'s oceans to become warmer and more acidic, a chemical change that may prevent corals from forming calcium carbonate skeletons. The fossil record indicates, however, that some groups of corals have survived similar environmental crises in past geological eras, and that changes in ocean chemistry may result in the evolution of different types of skeletons or of corals that lack skeletons. Understanding these past evolutionary transitions and the environmental conditions under which they occurred may help scientists predict the responses of today\'s reef-building corals to future climate change. This collaborative project between researchers from Harvey Mudd College, a Principally Undergraduate Institution, and the American Museum of Natural History will investigate the evolution of calcium carbonate skeletons in Anthozoa (corals, sea anemones, and relatives).  They will first generate an extensive time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the group and then use this evolutionary framework to study the evolution of skeletal characters. Students from groups underrepresented in the sciences will participate in this research through the PI\'s mentoring of undergraduates at the minority-serving New York City College of Technology, and the Scripps College Academy, a program for high school girls in the Los Angeles area. The project will also generate diverse outreach materials for a public display on corals at the American Museum of Natural History. <br/><br/>Although previous molecular phylogenetic studies have found strong support for relationships among some orders of Anthozoa, key regions of the tree remain poorly resolved, impeding efforts to understand character evolution within the group. By first sequencing complete genomes from eight distantly related taxa of Anthozoa researchers will then design a set of Ultra-Conserved Elements (UCEs) that can be used throughout Anthozoa.  UCE sequences will then be generated for 192 Anthozoa species spanning diversity within the group to generate the first phylogenomic estimate of relationships within the group.  The researchers will then use this phylogenetic tree and a diverse set of comparative methods to infer the direction, timing and paleoclimatic correlates of evolutionary transitions in skeletogenesis and other traits within the clade that have allowed anthozoans to engineer the largest biological structures on the planet.\nComputer Science\'s traditional role in the university setting has been to develop skilled software engineers and computing professionals.  Eclipsing, not replacing, that role is the growing need for computing expertise in non-computing disciplines.  The "CS for Insight" project at Harvey Mudd College will develop a curriculum that will serve as a bridge from a typical introductory computer science course (CS1) to discipline-specific courses in computing for many fields.  In the "CS for Insight" curriculum students will use existing computing resources, first to gain confidence in learning new interfaces, and then will apply these resources to address challenges within their discipline.  The project\'s broader goal will be to better understand the pathways that non-computing disciplines may follow to provide their students with the appropriate computing skills for their specific discipline.\n\nDepartments at schools across the country are exploring the many pathways for leveraging computation for their specific purposes.  Two paradigms have begun to emerge.  Some disciplines "adapt and assimilate," integrating their own computing curriculum from the very start.  Others collaborate to "factor-out-then-follow-up," choosing to build discipline-specific skills atop a computing-based CS1.  The consortium of Claremont Colleges, simultaneously widely varied and close-knit, offers a laboratory uniquely suited for comparing these paradigms head-to-head and exploring the hybrid approaches that will arise alongside.  This project will leverage this disciplinary diversity to draw a more representative cohort of students to computing.  The PI team will carefully track the demographics and computational identities of the participants to develop knowledge that can be used by others to create a model by which all disciplines can leverage computing as part their own unique culture.\nRobert Cave of Harvey Mudd College is supported by an award from the Chemical Theory, Models and Computational Methods program in the Chemistry division to develop computational methods for studying electron transfer reactions.  Electron transfer reactions are the simplest chemical reactions but have central roles in biological systems and in human-engineered devices that seek to harness solar energy as alternative sources.  The initial stages of plant photosynthesis are exquisitely engineered to transfer electrons across large distances, wasting as little energy as possible, in order to make high-energy molecules for later use.   The mitochondria in the cells of animals use an analogous "reverse" electron transfer pathway to synthesize molecules that allow muscle movement from high-energy precursors.   As we seek to mimic the effectiveness of plants in harnessing solar energy it is critical to understand electron transfer processes at a detailed level.  The rate of electron transfer depends on many quantities, but the factor that controls the distance- and orientation-dependence of the rate is called the "electronic coupling element", a quantity that has the potential to yield unprecedented control of rates if we can understand it at a fundamental level.  Cave and his coworkers   develop new methods for the calculation of the electronic coupling that are more accurate than existing approaches.  The new methods and results are used to better design new synthetic solar energy conversion devices and understand mechanisms of biological electron transfer.  The work is carried out Harvey Mudd College, an undergraduate institution.  The work provides an excellent educational opportunity for students likely to pursue graduate work in chemistry and also supports the annual presentation of a theoretical chemistry workshop to the Society of Women Engineers? On-Campus Day for high school women, where 100-150 high school women are introduced to opportunities in science, engineering and mathematics.\n\n\nGreat strides have been made over the past two decades in developing diabatization techniques for extracting the electronic coupling from standard quantum chemical approaches.  However, because of the poor scaling of correlated quantum chemistry methods with system size one is often faced with the choice between accuracy and tractability, especially for large electron transfer systems.  Given the success of these diabatization methods, it is imperative to turn attention to developing new electronic structure theory approaches, tailored to the electron transfer problem, which are accurate and able to treat considerably larger systems.  This work addresses this challenge by developing a series of approximate methods that include correlation in a balanced fashion for all of the zeroth-order states relevant to the electron transfer process.  These approaches greatly extend the size of electron transfer systems for which the coupling can be obtained accurately and thus provide useful guidance about the suitability of more approximate methods.   In particular a family of correlated methods is developed to calculate the electronic coupling element based on approximations to the Equation of Motion Coupled Cluster approach.   The methods scale no worse than MP2/MBPT2, giving access to dramatically larger systems than available to CI or CCSD.  Use of PT-based coefficients in place of CCSD coefficients in the similarity transformed Hamiltonian, coupled with truncated excitation spaces tailored to electron transfer systems, lead to the increased scope and speed.  Tests of these new methods include a series of model systems where high-accuracy calculations can also be performed, application to calculate the electronic coupling in near-degenerate donor/acceptor and bridge systems, and the study of through-solvent electron transfer.  Both of the latter two computational targets have been studied experimentally.\nThis CAREER project is focused on characterizing the formation and fate of brown carbon in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements of brown carbon will be made in Los Angeles CA over several years and laboratory studies will be conducted to better understand the fate of brown carbon in fog and clouds. The project is expected to add important insights into the sources, fate, and impact of brown carbon in the urban environment. Such knowledge could help reduce uncertainty in regards to the contribution of atmospheric aerosol to climate forcing. \n\nThe objectives of the research are to (1) Determine the contribution of nitro-aromatics to ambient Los Angeles particulate brown carbon (BrC) over hourly, daily, and yearly time scales, and (2) Determine how aerosol aging during fog/cloud processing impacts aqueous secondary BrC optical and chemical properties.  This project also presents a unique opportunity to engage undergraduates in timely atmospheric research with cutting-edge instrumentation.\nThis award is supported by the Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) and the Chemistry Research Instrumentation Programs. Professor Gerald Van Hecke from Harvey Mudd College and colleagues are acquiring a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).  A differential scanning calorimeter measures the temperature that a material undergoes a change in phase (for example from solid to liquid), the heat necessary to promote the phase change, and glass temperature changes.  The capacity of a material to adsorb heat (heat capacity) and the detection of polymorphic crystals can be studied. The instrument is used in research on atmospheric aerosols and the study of potential materials for thermal energy storage media. The DSC provides research opportunities in calorimetry at Harvey Mudd, sister Claremont Colleges, and at least two local community colleges which greatly increases the training of young researchers in this technique. \n\nThis calorimeter enhances research and education at all levels. It aids researchers in thermally characterizing aqueous atmospheric aerosols and in exploring eutectic and peritectic behavior in binary mixtures of simple carboxylic liquids.  These later materials have potential use in thermal energy storage materials.  Finally, the DSC is used to determine the thermal and phase properties of emergent materials for coupling magnetism to ferroelectric crystalline propwerties above ambient temperature.\nThis award funds the research activities of Professor Vatche Sahakian at Harvey Mudd College. \n\nOne of the great unsolved problems in modern physics is the fusing of two of the pillars of modern physics, namely quantum mechanics (the physics of the very small) and general relativity (the physics of gravity).  Thus far, the best candidate theory for accomplishing this fusion is string theory.   Professor Sahakian\'s research explores several key areas in string theory and quantum gravity.  It investigates the idea that our awareness of space may be only an "emergent" perception which arises from the unique ways in which quantum mechanics spreads (or "entangles") information across different objects.  This new rethinking of the nature of spacetime has recently shown great promise and may be key to addressing the longstanding problems in this field.  This project also explores some of the unique properties of black holes.  Black holes are extreme objects that test the limits of validity of our physical laws and hence are the ideal playgrounds for understanding quantum gravity.  This project therefore advances the national interest by promoting the progress of science in one of its most fundamental directions:  the discovery and understanding of new physical laws.  An extensive undergraduate research program is also a key part of the proposed project, including a course-development component for an undergraduate course on modern topics in theoretical physics.   Such a course will help to provide undergraduate physics students with solid foundations for graduate school.   The PI will also continue preparing an undergraduate textbook on classical field theory, a subject which forms one of the cornerstones of physics.\n\nMore technically, Professor Sahakian will study the emergence of spacetime from quantum entanglement.  This will be done primarily within the context of Matrix theory, a non-perturbative formulation of M-theory and hence of quantum gravity.  Professor Sahakian will test these ideas of emergent spacetime within the setting of black-hole physics, attempting to unravel the nature of the black-hole horizon where recent work suggests the possible breakdown of spacetime geometry, even at long distances.  It is also hoped that this research will lead to a better understanding of black-hole evaporation and the details of entanglement evolution in the process of transferring information from the interior of a black hole to the outside.\nThe engineering and engineering education community is intensely interested in generating trained engineers who can address large scale, "important" problems. Such challenges rarely adhere to traditional boundaries, yet graduate students are frequently admitted and trained with the primary intent of teaching them to be deeply focused on highly specific problem domains, with markedly less emphasis on breadth, creativity and curiosity. This project seeks to explore the hypothesis that graduate engineering programs suffer from a lack of potentially transformative and creative applicants. Individuals from all stages of the graduate student pipeline will be interviewed with the goal of identifying potential problems in attracting students to graduate research. Based on the findings from these investigations, novel strategies to remediate these problems will be designed and tested. This project has the potential to develop approaches to overcome barriers to retention of creative thinkers in graduate engineering studies. Given that the future engineering community is shaped, at least in part, by individual decisions to pursue or not to pursue graduate studies, this study could radically impact the engineering community and its potential for transformative research. Notably, interviews across a wide spectrum of racial, ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds may also provide insights into differential influences on the decision to engage with graduate education, and improve strategies for diversity and inclusion.\n\nThis study will use a human-centered design approach, Design Thinking, to explore the question of how to increase graduate student engagement in transformative engineering research. A central tenet of the Design Thinking approach is that one must listen closely to and understand "users" before designing or implementing solutions to their needs or wants. Therefore, participants at all stages of the graduate student pipeline (undergraduates, graduates, faculty, administrators) will be interviewed using a framework of ethnographic techniques to understand whether potentially transformative students select out of the admissions process, and if so why. Additionally, the graduate admissions process and engineering education will be examined for their propensity to encourage or discourage creativity, intellectual curiosity, interdisciplinary perspectives, and a focus on large-scale important problems. Knowledge gained in these investigations will be used to develop prototypes to attract and retain potentially transformative thinkers, as well as to reframe first year graduate engineering curricula in order to stimulate creativity and interdisciplinary thinking. The overall goal of this research is to develop approaches to stem the hypothesized loss of creative, interdisciplinary thinkers in graduate engineering studies by overcoming barriers to recruitment and retention.\nThe NSF Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges (CCSC) Computer Science Education Showcase will expand the NSF SIGCSE Showcase to a set of regional conferences, with the goal of increasing the diversity of institutions and communities represented in the DUE portfolio. Over the years, NSF has funded numerous Computer Science Education (CS Ed) projects through various programs. Each has the potential for significant national impact on CS Ed. In recent years NSF has sponsored a showcase featuring these projects at SIGCSE, the premier CS Ed conference. This showcase has provided a vehicle for project principal investigators (PIs), NSF DUE program officers, and attendees to interact. It is widely believed that the showcase is a successful dissemination vehicle for NSF-sponsored projects. Due to lack of travel funds, many in the CS Ed community find it difficult to attend SIGCSE, and instead participate in one of ten annual regional conferences sponsored by CCSC. CCSC was created for the betterment of computer-oriented curricula in two-year and four-year colleges and universities across the nation and to improve the use of computing as an educational resource for all disciplines. While CCSC and SIGCSE communities overlap, the CCSC showcases have the potential to reach a population of computer science educators that are often otherwise overlooked. The showcases address the national concern about diversifying participation in STEM by potentially increasing the awareness of NSF CS Ed-related programs among institutions and communities with fewer resources, and subsequently the volume and breadth of PIs submitting proposals each year to DUE programs.\n\nOver two years, the NSF CCSC Showcase project will stage showcase exhibits at CCSC regional conferences to perform outreach and to feature select NSF Computer Science Education projects by providing travel support for project PIs who will disseminate their work. This will enable the PIs to reach an audience that complements SIGCSE. The project will track the numbers of CS Ed projects presented, computer science educators exposed to the projects, attendees at each showcase, attendees who plan on implementing the ideas disseminated at each Showcase, attendees who plan to submit NSF proposals in the future, and attendees who request to be considered as a NSF reviewers. The goal is to establish the viability of the CCSC Showcase as a dissemination vehicle and as a vehicle for developing a stronger Computer Science curriculum.\nThis award is supported by the Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) and the Chemistry Research Instrumentation (CRIF) Programs. Professor David Vosburg from Harvey Mudd College and colleagues Adam Johnson and Katherine Van Heuvelen have acquired a console and probes to upgrade a 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer.  In general, NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools available to chemists for the study of the structure of molecules. It is used to identify unknown substances, to characterize specific arrangements of atoms within molecules, and to study the dynamics of interactions between molecules in solution or in the solid state.  Access to state-of-the-art NMR spectrometers is essential to chemists who are carrying out frontier research. The results from these NMR studies have an impact in synthetic organic/inorganic chemistry, materials chemistry and biochemistry. This instrument is an integral part of teaching as well as research performed by undergraduate students via independent student research and traditional academic coursework. Students work on these projects year long and especially during the summer months. The spectrometer is also used by chemistry faculty and students at Mount San Antonio College as well as researchers at the local biotech company Synedgen which is a regular sponsor of undergraduate research.\n\nThe award of an NMR console and probes is aimed at enhancing research and education at all levels, especially in areas such as: (a) synthesizing natural products biomimetically, (b) preparing molecular cages via self-assembly, (c) exploring catalytic asymmetric hydroamination, (d) studying bio-inspired catalysts for dechlorination reactions, (e) using sensitizer-dependent injection into zinc oxide nanotube photoanodes for solar cells, (f) characterizing atmospheric secondary organic aerosols, (g) studying Claisen rearrangements of amide-acetals of substituted gamma- and delta-lactams, (h) preparing tunable nanocomposite gas separation membranes and (i) synthesizing natural polymer derivatives.\nThis project develops a quantitative understanding of how bacteria turn their genes on and off in response to stresses. This project will provide undergraduate students with experience performing research in microbiology, molecular genetics, and genomics. In addition, the PI will provide research internships to high school students participating in an Upward Bound program. These students are from backgrounds underrepresented in science, and the internships will give these students a path towards careers in science.\n\t\nThe project studies two major questions about how the transcription of genes in the E. coli genome varies in response to the concentration of the regulatory protein RpoS. First, the project will test the role of specific transcription factors (TFs) in altering how genes respond to RpoS levels. This will be done by RNA-seq studies of the response to RpoS levels in strains lacking certain TFs. These whole genome studies will be complemented by detailed manipulations of TF binding sites in specific promoters. Second, the research will characterize the dose-response relationship between RpoS and transcription, and its influence over a physiological transition. This research will be done by altering RpoS levels using an arabinose-inducible RpoS system, and then measuring the effect on transcription using RNA-seq.\nThis project will sustain and enhance a national repository of traces that capture usage of file-systems, storage and input/outputs with the goal of helping researchers to address performance bottlenecks. As part of ongoing activities, new tools essential to the successful use of traces will be added. Also, new mirror sites are planned to expand efficiency and utility of the trace repository. The national repository of file systems traces is of immense importance to the software engineering community. By updating the traces for the new and emerging applications, this project provides a vital service to this community.\n\nDisk based file system is a performance bottleneck for many computer applications. Thus, it is useful to have a set of activity traces for storage systems to understand the access characteristics. Such traces may potentially help optimize flash-based solid-state storage and other emerging non-volatile memory based storage technologies. As the storage technologies evolve with network storage, cloud-based storage, Geo-replicated storage, the trace repository provides a set of targets for storage systems optimization.\nDatabase systems provide users with the ability to ask questions, or queries, about collections of data that the system stores (e.g., find employees who had worked in the company for at least 2 years) and provide the answers very fast. People are better equipped than computers to tackle problems that require judgement or data interpretation due to their real-world experience and perception. A crowd-powered database system uses groups of people called "the crowd" to help with answering users\' queries by recruiting them to process data using criteria that are subjective and/or require visual or semantic interpretation. For example, a user may want to find a set of faculty job postings in which the job description discusses a commitment to diversity and for which the school is in a safe location; interpreting each job description and researching crime statistics are tasks well-suited for people to perform. The system can coordinate crowd workers to process data more efficiently than the user alone could, which is advantageous when there are more than a handful of data items to process. While queries processed by the crowd may take hours or days to complete, crowd-powered database systems enable the processing of complex queries. For example, queries such as determining which research articles about a certain medical device contain experimental results comparing this and other devices, or finding out which of a set of jewelers only use ethically sourced metals and stones and also ship to Alaska. Database systems are designed to optimize the efficiency of query processing of individual users. A query often involves multiple parts, e.g., for the job postings query these are (1) filter out jobs that do not describe a commitment to diversity and (2) filter out jobs for schools in an unsafe location. A job that does not meet the first criterion does not need to be processed for the second one, and vice versa. The processing order for the parts of the query influences how much computation is needed and how long the query will take to process. Traditional database systems have information about how long parts of a query will take and the likelihood of items satisfying filters; they use this information to choose an efficient processing ordering for a query. However, this information is not known for crowd-powered database systems. The usefulness of optimizers for crowd-powered database systems hinges on their ability to find an efficient way to process a user\'s query when this information is unknown before processing the query. The aim of this research project is to tackle this challenge by developing a system to process queries involving multiple filtering criteria that observes the execution environment and adjusts its processing strategy as the query executes. This project will have broad impact by yielding a query processing system that will empower users to ask more interesting questions about data, advancing research in allocating human computation resources in dynamic environments, as well as training a group of undergraduate students both in research and in the principles of systems design.\n\nThe goal of this research is to build a cost-based query optimizer for crowd-powered filter queries for which important statistics used in optimization are unknown at query time. These statistics include traditional metrics such as filter selectivity as well as new contributors to query cost such as the time it takes crowd workers to complete a unit of work and the number of workers needed to reach consensus for a subjective evaluation. The project takes an adaptive approach to query processing: while the query is running, the system observes cost and selectivity information and periodically reorders the query plan operators to reduce overall query cost. The researchers will demonstrate that their query optimizer yields query costs that are comparable to costs from the optimal crowd-based query plan for which selectivity and subjectivity information is known a priori. Source code, papers, and presentations are available on the project web site (\nPlanning is important for autonomous systems, and planning for the real world typically involves reasoning about uncertainty in perception, action, and how the environment will react to actions of the agents.  This work will improve the robustness and reliability or plans in applications such as autonomous driving, automated warehousing, and personal robots by addressing limitations in how current planning systems handle real-world scheduling uncertainty.  The research will explore fundamental questions such as: What makes a plan good?  How good is it?  How can we make it better?  And, how should we adjust plans when faced with uncertainty?  The research will produce automated planning and scheduling techniques that can robustly adapt to real-world, uncertain interactions with physical environments and teammates.  The project will also develop and share curricula for two new undergraduate courses in robotics that highlight this research and will host a national AI Predoctoral Workshop that aims to broaden the pipeline of under-represented students into AI graduate research.\n\nThis work addresses a fundamental gap that currently exists between AI temporal planning theory and the execution of such plans, in practice. The specific research objectives are to (1) equip agents with more accurate plan representations by learning models of temporal uncertainty; (2) develop more useful measures of plan quality by introducing novel robustness and reliability metrics that predict the prospects of successful execution; (3) design more resilient scheduling methods by devising new online and offline heuristics that hedge against uncertainty; (4) construct more durable multi-agent coordination protocols by creating new decentralized algorithms for decoupling agents\' schedules to allow robust, independent execution; and (5) demonstrate the efficacy of these ideas in the real world by evaluating on a diverse corpus of multi-robot benchmark problems.  If successful, this research will significantly improve the efficiency and usefulness of existing planning techniques in real-world settings and reframe how researchers analyze temporal plans.\nThis award renews a highly successful CISE Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Site at Harvey Mudd College. A team of computer science faculty mentors have designed a 10 week summer REU program in the broad area of computer systems. The summer research activity gives students a taste of the most compelling parts of a graduate school experience as well as an immersive experience in the field of computer science. The student research projects cover a breadth of areas in computing science. The students will gain experience in all aspects of the process of conducting research. The site will target students from 2-year schools and students early in their undergraduate studies.  The faculty is committed to engaging students from groups traditionally under-represented in computing. The program features individual and group activities that create a strong common-cohort experience for students for whom the REU experience should be transformative. The program develops research ability, improves presentation and communications skills, and nurtures student interest in research-related careers.\n\nThe intellectual merit of the project revolves around the variety of systems projects through which students will be exposed to all aspects of the research process. The research focus areas include text simplification, robotics, domain-specific programming languages and systems, and active transportation planning. Each project connects with the systems theme, building atop existing platforms, melding theory and practice, and implementing designs to mitigate complexity.  The projects are designed to be accessible to students early in their undergraduate careers and share principles of low-cost and overhead, external accessibility of deliverables, and narrowness of focus.  The students engage in projects that are exciting, current, and externally relevant and that have clear applications. Students actively pursue the entire research process including literature search, digesting prior work, formulating new problems, designing and conducting investigations, and preparing presentations and publications of results.  The REU cohorts will regularly share their work with each other and meet daily with faculty mentors. The project activities will permit students to acquire valuable professional development skills, gain a broader and deeper understanding of research, and develop greater confidence in their abilities as future computing professionals and researchers.'

In [56]:

SMALL BUSINESS PHASE I            3045
EAPSI                             2104
ANALYSIS PROGRAM                  1473
ROBUST INTELLIGENCE               1359
APPLIED MATHEMATICS               1272
Secure &Trustworthy Cyberspace    1258
COMPUTER SYSTEMS                  1252
I-Corps                           1107
ECONOMICS                         1097
IUSE                              1022
STATISTICS                        1021
GEOPHYSICS                         936
SOCIOLOGY                          892
ARCHAEOLOGY                        865
CCLI-Type 1 (Exploratory)          856
GENI PROJECT                         1
COMPUTER VISION                      1
HUMAN &/OR BIOLOGICAL                1
Graduate Research Opportunity        1
CCLI - ASA                           1
SAFETY                               1
CTMC                                 1
M3X - Mind, Machine, and Motor       1
CHEMISTRY EDUCATION                  1
EARTH SCOPE                          1
ALMA-J                               1
Materials Teams                      1
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS                  1
TRUSTED COMPUTING                    1
Air Force Office of Scientific       1
Geography & Spatial Sci-DDRI         1
Name: program, Length: 875, dtype: int64

In [57]:

266       Saddlepoint and Bootstrap Methods in Stochasti...
2660      A Theoretical Foundation for Applications of B...
2924      Sufficient Dimension Reduction for Missing, Ce...
2968      Workshop on: Discovery in Complex or Massive D...
2969      Spatial Prediction of Surfaces in the Presence...
3069      MSPA - AST: Sparse Representation and Efficien...
3826      Study of dimension reduction methods driven by...
3847      Theil-Sen Estimators in Semiparametric Mixed M...
3858      Travel Support for the 3rd International Joint...
4428      Synscenelab: A statistical analysis of feasibi...
4474      Theory and algorithms for semi-supervised lear...
4550      Collaborative Research: Applied Probability an...
4574      Collaborative Research: Integral Transform Met...
4582      Collaborative Research: Integral Transform Met...
4600      Collaborative Research: Applied Probability an...
4912      CAREER: Nonparametric likelihood, estimating f...
5193        A NISS/ASA Writing Workshop for New Researchers
5226      Collaborative Research: Penalized Methods for ...
5254      Collaborative Research: Penalized Methods for ...
5273      MSPA-MPS: Experimental design for achieving co...
5750      Statistical Methods for Fingerprint Image Anal...
5996      Computer-intensive methods for nonparametric t...
6161      Multi-resolution lattice models and theory for...
6750      Long and Short Memory Stationary Processes: Pr...
6770      Stochastic gradient systems: inference and app...
6828      Design and Analysis of Experiments (DAE 2007) ...
7104      International Conference on Advances in Interd...
7133      Current and Future Trends in Nonparametrics Co...
7401      Resampling methods for temporal and spatial pr...
7426      Statistical Methods for Prediction of Individu...
150412    Statistical Models, Inference, and Computation...
150413    Collaborative Research: Collaborative Learning...
150779    The Weighted Bootstrap and Berry-Esseen Bounds...
150808    Collaborative Research:  Statistical Estimatio...
150810    Collaborative Research: Statistical Estimation...
150908             Hidden Components in Modern Applications
150957    Advanced Statistical Tools for Ultra-High Dime...
151062    Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Embedding of ...
151066    Collaborative Research: Inference for Network ...
151067    Multiscale Generalized Correlation: A Unified ...
151081    Collaborative Research: Inference for Network ...
151205    Planes of Change: New Statistical Methods for ...
151217    Estimation, Computation, and Uncertainty Quant...
151218    Deterministic Sampling through Energy Minimiza...
151228    Summer Research Conference in Statistics and B...
151231    Workshop on Applications-Driven Geometric Func...
151425    Statistical Inference for Biomedical Big Data:...
151738    RTG: Understanding dynamic big data with compl...
151944    The 2017 John Barrett Memorial Lectures -- Mat...
152087        Statistical Analysis of Neuronal Data (SAND8)
152256    CAREER: Flexible Parsimonious Models for Compl...
152334    CAREER:  Nonparametric function estimation: sh...
152349    CAREER: Utilizing Geometry for Statistical Lea...
152350    CAREER: Nonconvex Optimization and Identifiabi...
152702    Collaborative Research: Optimal Bayesian Conce...
152703    Collaborative Research: New statistically-moti...
152899    CAREER:   Data Assimilation for Massive Spatio...
152912    CAREER:   Gaussian Graphical Models: Theory, C...
152917    CAREER:  Bayesian Generalized Shrinkage: An En...
154417    Spatial-temporal models and methods for big no...
Name: award_title_or_description, Length: 1021, dtype: object

In [69]:
print('\n'.join(list(awards[awards.program.str.contains('Data Infrastructure').fillna(False)].award_title_or_description.sort_values())))

A Method for Leveraging Public Information Sources for Social Science Research
BCC - Building Community and Capacity for Transformative Data-Intensive Criminal Research
BCC - Building an Interdisciplinary Equal Employment Opportunity Research Network and Data Capacity
BCC Building Cyberinfrastructure for Transdisciplinary Research and Visualization of the Long-Term Human Ecodynamics of the North Atlantic
BCC Forecasting the Break: Building Community and Capacity for Large-scale, Data-Intensive Research in Forced Migration Studies
BCC Information-Energy Nexus Research Network
BCC Ohio Longitudinal Data Archive
BCC-EHR: Learning Games Playdata Consortium (PDC): A Consortium for Digital Analytics and Techniques for Assessment with Learning Games
BCC-SBE/EHR: Developing Community & Capacity to Measure Noncognitive Factors in Digital Learning Environments
BCC-SBE: Addressing Challenges for Geospatial Data-Intensive Research Communities: Research on Unique Confidentiality Risks & Geospatial Data Sharing within a Virtual Data Enclave
BCC-SBE: An Urban Sciences Research Coordination Network for Data-Driven Urban Design and Analysis
BCC-SBE: Exploring the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel in the United States: A Workshop Proposal
BCC-SBE: PI-NET: Poli-Informatics Research Coordination Network
BCC-SBE: Seeing Speech: Building a Community
BCC: Broadband Use Mapping, Data and Evaluation
BCC: Collaborative Research: Designing SKOPE: Synthesized Knowledge of Past Environments
BCC: Collaborative Research: Designing SKOPE: Synthesized Knowledge of Past Environments
BCC: Collaborative Research: Designing SKOPE: Synthesized Knowledge of Past Environments
BCC: Developing a comprehensive regional approach to data set integration to support data-intensive research in education in Silicon Valley
BCC: Organizing Multi-Disciplinary Communities to Conduct Data-Intensive Research on Education and Learning
Building Community and Capacity for an Internet-Accessible and State-Level Microsimulation Model of Tax and Benefit Policies
Building Research Infrastructure and Community to Advance Social Scientific and Educational Use of Administrative Data
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: BCC: Ethoinformatics: Developing Data Services and a Standard "Etho-Grammar" for Behavioral Research
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: BCC: Ethoinformatics: Developing Data Services and a Standard "Etho-Grammar" for Behavioral Research
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: BCC: Ethoinformatics: Developing Data Services and a Standard "Etho-Grammar" for Behavioral Research
Catalyzing a Cross-Disciplinary, Cross-University Urban Research Agenda in the Age of Digital Data
Collaborative Research BCC-SBE: Using Archival Resources to Conduct Data-Intensive Internet Research
Collaborative Research BCC-SBE: Using Archival Resources to Conduct Data-Intensive Internet Research
Collaborative Research BCC-SBE: Using Archival Resources to Conduct Data-Intensive Internet Research
Collaborative Research: Automatically Annotated Repository of Digital Video and Audio Resources Community (AARDVARC)
Collaborative Research: Automatically Annotated Repository of Digital Video and Audio Resources Community (AARDVARC)
Collaborative Research: Automatically Annotated Repository of Digital Video and Audio Resources Community (AARDVARC)
Collaborative Research: BCC-SBE: Building Communities for Transforming Social Media Research with SOCRATES: SOcial and CRowdsourced AcTivities Extraction System
Collaborative Research: BCC-SBE: Building Communities for Transforming Social Media Research with SOCRATES: SOcial and CRowdsourced AcTivities Extraction System
Collaborative Research: BCC: Developing a Research Community and Capacity for the Study of Cultural Heritage in Conflict
Collaborative Research: BCC: Developing a Research Community and Capacity for the Study of Cultural Heritage in Conflict
Collaborative Research: BCC: Developing a Research Community and Capacity for the Study of Cultural Heritage in Conflict
Collaborative Research: Center for Historical Information and Analysis (CHIA)
Collaborative Research: Center for Historical Information and Analysis (CHIA)
Collaborative Research: Center for Historical Information and Analysis (CHIA)
Collaborative Research: Center for Historical Information and Analysis (CHIA)
Collaborative Research: Center for Historical Information and Analysis (CHIA)
Collaborative Research: Enabling Access to and Analysis of Shared Daylong Child and Family Audio Data
Collaborative Research: Enabling Access to and Analysis of Shared Daylong Child and Family Audio Data
Collaborative Research: Enabling Access to and Analysis of Shared Daylong Child and Family Audio Data
Data on the mind: Center for Data-Intensive Psychological Science
Designing a New National Survey on Social Mobility
Innovating Infrastructure: A new platform for studying dynamic regional economies
KredibleNet - Building a research community and proposing a research agenda for the study and modeling of reputation and authority across informal knowledge markets
Longitudinal Intergenerational Familly Electronic Micro-Database (LIFE-M)
Minnesota Linking Information for Kids: Creating Capacity for Data Intensive Research
Modernizing Political Event Data for Big Data Social Science Research
PaleoCore: A model for Developing Distributed Data Frameworks in SBE and EHR
RIDIR: Building Cyberinfrastructure to Enable Interdisciplinary Research on  the Long-Term Human Ecodynamics of the North Atlantic
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Analytical tools for text based social data integration
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Analytical tools for text based social data integration
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Computational and Historical Resources on Nations and Organizations for the Social Sciences (CHRONOS)
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Computational and Historical Resources on Nations and Organizations for the Social Sciences (CHRONOS)
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Developing and Deploying SKOPE--A resource for Synthesizing Knowledge of Past Environments
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Developing and Deploying SKOPE--A resource for Synthesizing Knowledge of Past Environments
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: Developing and Deploying SKOPE--A resource for Synthesizing Knowledge of Past Environments
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: cyberSW: A Data Synthesis and Knowledge Discovery System for Long-term Interdisciplinary Research on Southwest Social Change
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: cyberSW: A Data Synthesis and Knowledge Discovery System for Long-term Interdisciplinary Research on Southwest Social Change
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: cyberSW: A Data Synthesis and Knowledge Discovery System for Long-term Interdisciplinary Research on Southwest Social Change
RIDIR: Collaborative Research: cyberSW: A Data Synthesis and Knowledge Discovery System for Long-term Interdisciplinary Research on Southwest Social Change
RIDIR: IPUMS-Terra: Global Population and Agricultural Data
RIDIR: Survey Data Recycling: New Analytic Framework, Integrated Database, and Tools for Cross-national Social, Behavioral and Economic Research
Using Science to Build Tribal Capacity for Data-Intensive Research
Workshops on Big Data and Urban Informatics: e-Infrastructure for Social Science Research on Sustainable Urban Systems

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