In this project, you'll classify images from the CIFAR-10 dataset. The dataset consists of airplanes, dogs, cats, and other objects. You'll preprocess the images, then train a convolutional neural network on all the samples. The images need to be normalized and the labels need to be one-hot encoded. You'll get to apply what you learned and build a convolutional, max pooling, dropout, and fully connected layers. At the end, you'll get to see your neural network's predictions on the sample images.

Run the following cell to download the CIFAR-10 dataset for python.

```
In [1]:
```"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
from urllib.request import urlretrieve
from os.path import isfile, isdir
from tqdm import tqdm
import problem_unittests as tests
import tarfile
cifar10_dataset_folder_path = 'cifar-10-batches-py'
# Use Floyd's cifar-10 dataset if present
floyd_cifar10_location = '/input/cifar-10/python.tar.gz'
if isfile(floyd_cifar10_location):
tar_gz_path = floyd_cifar10_location
else:
tar_gz_path = 'cifar-10-python.tar.gz'
class DLProgress(tqdm):
last_block = 0
def hook(self, block_num=1, block_size=1, total_size=None):
self.total = total_size
self.update((block_num - self.last_block) * block_size)
self.last_block = block_num
if not isfile(tar_gz_path):
with DLProgress(unit='B', unit_scale=True, miniters=1, desc='CIFAR-10 Dataset') as pbar:
urlretrieve(
'https://www.cs.toronto.edu/~kriz/cifar-10-python.tar.gz',
tar_gz_path,
pbar.hook)
if not isdir(cifar10_dataset_folder_path):
with tarfile.open(tar_gz_path) as tar:
tar.extractall()
tar.close()
tests.test_folder_path(cifar10_dataset_folder_path)

```
```

The dataset is broken into batches to prevent your machine from running out of memory. The CIFAR-10 dataset consists of 5 batches, named `data_batch_1`

, `data_batch_2`

, etc.. Each batch contains the labels and images that are one of the following:

- airplane
- automobile
- bird
- cat
- deer
- dog
- frog
- horse
- ship
- truck

Understanding a dataset is part of making predictions on the data. Play around with the code cell below by changing the `batch_id`

and `sample_id`

. The `batch_id`

is the id for a batch (1-5). The `sample_id`

is the id for a image and label pair in the batch.

Ask yourself "What are all possible labels?", "What is the range of values for the image data?", "Are the labels in order or random?". Answers to questions like these will help you preprocess the data and end up with better predictions.

```
In [2]:
```%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'retina'
import helper
import numpy as np
# Explore the dataset
batch_id = 1
sample_id = 13
helper.display_stats(cifar10_dataset_folder_path, batch_id, sample_id)

```
```

```
In [3]:
```def normalize(x):
"""
Normalize a list of sample image data in the range of 0 to 1
: x: List of image data. The image shape is (32, 32, 3)
: return: Numpy array of normalize data
"""
# Will assume that range is 0-255 (each a color intensity for each RGB channel).
# This means the minimum for our range is 0, the maximum is 255.
# Normalization is given by xn = (x - range_min) / (range_max - range_min)
# Plugging in our numbers: xn = (x - 0) / (255 - 0) = x / 255
return x / 255
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_normalize(normalize)

```
```

Just like the previous code cell, you'll be implementing a function for preprocessing. This time, you'll implement the `one_hot_encode`

function. The input, `x`

, are a list of labels. Implement the function to return the list of labels as One-Hot encoded Numpy array. The possible values for labels are 0 to 9. The one-hot encoding function should return the same encoding for each value between each call to `one_hot_encode`

. Make sure to save the map of encodings outside the function.

Hint: Don't reinvent the wheel.

```
In [40]:
```def one_hot_encode(x):
"""
One hot encode a list of sample labels. Return a one-hot encoded vector for each label.
: x: List of sample Labels
: return: Numpy array of one-hot encoded labels
"""
# Since we'll have labels from 0-9, we can assume that the result will be a hot-encoded 10-element array.
# E.g.: 0 -> [1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]
# 1 -> [0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]
# ...
# 9 -> [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1]
#
# So, basically, everything is a 0, except for the value indexed by the label itself.
# Code inspired in http://stackoverflow.com/a/29831596/147507
# As an example, let's say we have 50 labels to convert
label_count = len(x)
# Array of zeros. Following our example, this will be shaped (50, 10). Ready to be one-hot-encoded.
one_hot_encoded = np.zeros((label_count, 10))
# np.arange(label_count) will be 0..label_count-1 (0..49)
# x will be the value to be hot-encoded, since it's an array of the same dimension (50 in our example), each value
# is used to reference each row.
# So, if label values were [5 2 0 5 9], the first indexing values would be:
# - [0, 5]
# - [1, 2]
# - [2, 0]
# - [3, 5]
# - [4, 9]
# Setting all of these to 1 has the effect of hot-encoding, since the label matches the index.
one_hot_encoded[np.arange(label_count), x] = 1.0
return one_hot_encoded
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_one_hot_encode(one_hot_encode)

```
```

```
In [41]:
```"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL
"""
# Preprocess Training, Validation, and Testing Data
helper.preprocess_and_save_data(cifar10_dataset_folder_path, normalize, one_hot_encode)

```
In [42]:
```"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL
"""
import pickle
import problem_unittests as tests
import helper
# Load the Preprocessed Validation data
valid_features, valid_labels = pickle.load(open('preprocess_validation.p', mode='rb'))

For the neural network, you'll build each layer into a function. Most of the code you've seen has been outside of functions. To test your code more thoroughly, we require that you put each layer in a function. This allows us to give you better feedback and test for simple mistakes using our unittests before you submit your project.

Note:If you're finding it hard to dedicate enough time for this course each week, we've provided a small shortcut to this part of the project. In the next couple of problems, you'll have the option to use classes from the TensorFlow Layers or TensorFlow Layers (contrib) packages to build each layer, except the layers you build in the "Convolutional and Max Pooling Layer" section. TF Layers is similar to Keras's and TFLearn's abstraction to layers, so it's easy to pickup.However, if you would like to get the most out of this course, try to solve all the problems

withoutusing anything from the TF Layers packages. Youcanstill use classes from other packages that happen to have the same name as ones you find in TF Layers! For example, instead of using the TF Layers version of the`conv2d`

class, tf.layers.conv2d, you would want to use the TF Neural Network version of`conv2d`

, tf.nn.conv2d.

Let's begin!

The neural network needs to read the image data, one-hot encoded labels, and dropout keep probability. Implement the following functions

- Implement
`neural_net_image_input`

- Return a TF Placeholder
- Set the shape using
`image_shape`

with batch size set to`None`

. - Name the TensorFlow placeholder "x" using the TensorFlow
`name`

parameter in the TF Placeholder.

- Implement
`neural_net_label_input`

- Return a TF Placeholder
- Set the shape using
`n_classes`

with batch size set to`None`

. - Name the TensorFlow placeholder "y" using the TensorFlow
`name`

parameter in the TF Placeholder.

- Implement
`neural_net_keep_prob_input`

- Return a TF Placeholder for dropout keep probability.
- Name the TensorFlow placeholder "keep_prob" using the TensorFlow
`name`

parameter in the TF Placeholder.

These names will be used at the end of the project to load your saved model.

Note: `None`

for shapes in TensorFlow allow for a dynamic size.

```
In [7]:
```import tensorflow as tf
def neural_net_image_input(image_shape):
"""
Return a Tensor for a batch of image input
: image_shape: Shape of the images
: return: Tensor for image input.
"""
shape_with_batch = (None,) + image_shape
return tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=shape_with_batch, name="x")
def neural_net_label_input(n_classes):
"""
Return a Tensor for a batch of label input
: n_classes: Number of classes
: return: Tensor for label input.
"""
shape_with_batch = (None, n_classes)
return tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=shape_with_batch, name="y")
def neural_net_keep_prob_input():
"""
Return a Tensor for keep probability
: return: Tensor for keep probability.
"""
return tf.placeholder(tf.float32, name="keep_prob")
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tf.reset_default_graph()
tests.test_nn_image_inputs(neural_net_image_input)
tests.test_nn_label_inputs(neural_net_label_input)
tests.test_nn_keep_prob_inputs(neural_net_keep_prob_input)

```
```

Convolution layers have a lot of success with images. For this code cell, you should implement the function `conv2d_maxpool`

to apply convolution then max pooling:

- Create the weight and bias using
`conv_ksize`

,`conv_num_outputs`

and the shape of`x_tensor`

. - Apply a convolution to
`x_tensor`

using weight and`conv_strides`

.- We recommend you use same padding, but you're welcome to use any padding.

- Add bias
- Add a nonlinear activation to the convolution.
- Apply Max Pooling using
`pool_ksize`

and`pool_strides`

.- We recommend you use same padding, but you're welcome to use any padding.

**Note:** You **can't** use TensorFlow Layers or TensorFlow Layers (contrib) for **this** layer, but you can still use TensorFlow's Neural Network package. You may still use the shortcut option for all the **other** layers.

```
In [89]:
```def conv2d_maxpool(x_tensor, conv_num_outputs, conv_ksize, conv_strides, pool_ksize, pool_strides):
"""
Apply convolution then max pooling to x_tensor
:param x_tensor: TensorFlow Tensor
:param conv_num_outputs: Number of outputs for the convolutional layer
:param conv_ksize: kernal size 2-D Tuple for the convolutional layer
:param conv_strides: Stride 2-D Tuple for convolution
:param pool_ksize: kernel size 2-D Tuple for pool
:param pool_strides: Stride 2-D Tuple for pool
: return: A tensor that represents convolution and max pooling of x_tensor
"""
# we know the last element of the tensor shape is the current amount of channels
# using .value since each element in the tensor shape is actually a tf.Dimension object
x_tensor_channels = x_tensor.shape[-1].value
# weights_shape will have the elements of conv_ksize and the channels an
weights_shape = conv_ksize + (x_tensor_channels, conv_num_outputs)
# formatting the strides for the way tensorflow accepts the parameter
# this will have [1, values from conv_strides, 1]
strides_parameter = [1] + list(conv_strides) + [1]
# create weights variable, using truncated normal as initialization values
# tip from the forum: https://discussions.udacity.com/t/another-stuck-at-low-accuracy-thread/226530/12
# setting the stddev to 0.1 makes a huge deal of a difference in how fast the network converges
weights = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal(weights_shape, mean=0.0, stddev=0.1))
# create convolution
# tf.nn.conv2d takes parameters:
# - input: [batch, in_height, in_width, in_channels]
# - filter: [filter_height, filter_width, in_channels, out_channels]
# - strides: [1, stride_size, stride_size, 1]
# - padding: 'SAME' or 'VALID'
convolution = tf.nn.conv2d(x_tensor, weights, strides=strides_parameter, padding='SAME')
# the bias will just be the same dimension as the outputs, since we're just going to add them
bias = tf.Variable(tf.zeros(conv_num_outputs))
# add bias to convolution
layer = convolution + bias
# apply non-linear activation function
layer = tf.nn.relu(layer)
# prepare parameters for tensorflow method (see above)
pool_ksize_parameter = [1] + list(pool_ksize) + [1]
pool_strides_parameter = [1] + list(pool_strides) + [1]
# max-pool the layer results
pooled_layer = tf.nn.max_pool(layer, pool_ksize_parameter, pool_strides_parameter, padding='SAME')
return pooled_layer
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_con_pool(conv2d_maxpool)

```
```

Implement the `flatten`

function to change the dimension of `x_tensor`

from a 4-D tensor to a 2-D tensor. The output should be the shape (*Batch Size*, *Flattened Image Size*). Shortcut option: you can use classes from the TensorFlow Layers or TensorFlow Layers (contrib) packages for this layer. For more of a challenge, only use other TensorFlow packages.

```
In [44]:
```def flatten(x_tensor):
"""
Flatten x_tensor to (Batch Size, Flattened Image Size)
: x_tensor: A tensor of size (Batch Size, ...), where ... are the image dimensions.
: return: A tensor of size (Batch Size, Flattened Image Size).
"""
return tf.contrib.layers.flatten(x_tensor)
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_flatten(flatten)

```
```

Implement the `fully_conn`

function to apply a fully connected layer to `x_tensor`

with the shape (*Batch Size*, *num_outputs*). Shortcut option: you can use classes from the TensorFlow Layers or TensorFlow Layers (contrib) packages for this layer. For more of a challenge, only use other TensorFlow packages.

```
In [45]:
```def fully_conn(x_tensor, num_outputs):
"""
Apply a fully connected layer to x_tensor using weight and bias
: x_tensor: A 2-D tensor where the first dimension is batch size.
: num_outputs: The number of output that the new tensor should be.
: return: A 2-D tensor where the second dimension is num_outputs.
"""
return tf.contrib.layers.fully_connected(inputs=x_tensor, num_outputs=num_outputs)
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_fully_conn(fully_conn)

```
```

Implement the `output`

function to apply a fully connected layer to `x_tensor`

with the shape (*Batch Size*, *num_outputs*). Shortcut option: you can use classes from the TensorFlow Layers or TensorFlow Layers (contrib) packages for this layer. For more of a challenge, only use other TensorFlow packages.

**Note:** Activation, softmax, or cross entropy should **not** be applied to this.

```
In [46]:
```def output(x_tensor, num_outputs):
"""
Apply a output layer to x_tensor using weight and bias
: x_tensor: A 2-D tensor where the first dimension is batch size.
: num_outputs: The number of output that the new tensor should be.
: return: A 2-D tensor where the second dimension is num_outputs.
"""
return tf.contrib.layers.fully_connected(inputs=x_tensor, num_outputs=num_outputs, activation_fn=None)
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_output(output)

```
```

Implement the function `conv_net`

to create a convolutional neural network model. The function takes in a batch of images, `x`

, and outputs logits. Use the layers you created above to create this model:

- Apply 1, 2, or 3 Convolution and Max Pool layers
- Apply a Flatten Layer
- Apply 1, 2, or 3 Fully Connected Layers
- Apply an Output Layer
- Return the output
- Apply TensorFlow's Dropout to one or more layers in the model using
`keep_prob`

.

```
In [84]:
```def conv_net(x, keep_prob):
"""
Create a convolutional neural network model
: x: Placeholder tensor that holds image data.
: keep_prob: Placeholder tensor that hold dropout keep probability.
: return: Tensor that represents logits
"""
net = x
net = conv2d_maxpool(x_tensor=net, conv_num_outputs=50, conv_ksize=(10, 10), conv_strides=(5, 5), pool_ksize=(5, 5), pool_strides=(3, 3))
net = conv2d_maxpool(x_tensor=net, conv_num_outputs=300, conv_ksize=(5, 5), conv_strides=(1, 1), pool_ksize=(2, 2), pool_strides=(1, 1))
net = flatten(net)
net = fully_conn(net, 300)
net = tf.nn.dropout(net, keep_prob)
net = output(net, 10)
# TODO: return output
return net
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
##############################
## Build the Neural Network ##
##############################
# Remove previous weights, bias, inputs, etc..
tf.reset_default_graph()
# Inputs
x = neural_net_image_input((32, 32, 3))
y = neural_net_label_input(10)
keep_prob = neural_net_keep_prob_input()
# Model
logits = conv_net(x, keep_prob)
# Name logits Tensor, so that is can be loaded from disk after training
logits = tf.identity(logits, name='logits')
# Loss and Optimizer
cost = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits=logits, labels=y))
optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer().minimize(cost)
# Accuracy
correct_pred = tf.equal(tf.argmax(logits, 1), tf.argmax(y, 1))
accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_pred, tf.float32), name='accuracy')
tests.test_conv_net(conv_net)

```
```

Implement the function `train_neural_network`

to do a single optimization. The optimization should use `optimizer`

to optimize in `session`

with a `feed_dict`

of the following:

`x`

for image input`y`

for labels`keep_prob`

for keep probability for dropout

This function will be called for each batch, so `tf.global_variables_initializer()`

has already been called.

Note: Nothing needs to be returned. This function is only optimizing the neural network.

```
In [65]:
```def train_neural_network(session, optimizer, keep_probability, feature_batch, label_batch):
"""
Optimize the session on a batch of images and labels
: session: Current TensorFlow session
: optimizer: TensorFlow optimizer function
: keep_probability: keep probability
: feature_batch: Batch of Numpy image data
: label_batch: Batch of Numpy label data
"""
session.run(optimizer, feed_dict={
x: feature_batch,
y: label_batch,
keep_prob: keep_probability
})
"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL THAT IS BELOW THIS LINE
"""
tests.test_train_nn(train_neural_network)

```
```

```
In [66]:
```def print_stats(session, feature_batch, label_batch, cost, accuracy):
"""
Print information about loss and validation accuracy
: session: Current TensorFlow session
: feature_batch: Batch of Numpy image data
: label_batch: Batch of Numpy label data
: cost: TensorFlow cost function
: accuracy: TensorFlow accuracy function
"""
cost_result = session.run(cost, feed_dict={
x: feature_batch,
y: label_batch,
keep_prob: 1.0
})
accuracy_result = session.run(accuracy, feed_dict={
x: feature_batch,
y: label_batch,
keep_prob: 1.0
})
print('Cost: {:<6.5}, Accuracy: {:<5.4}%'.format(cost_result, accuracy_result * 100.0))

Tune the following parameters:

- Set
`epochs`

to the number of iterations until the network stops learning or start overfitting - Set
`batch_size`

to the highest number that your machine has memory for. Most people set them to common sizes of memory:- 64
- 128
- 256
- ...

- Set
`keep_probability`

to the probability of keeping a node using dropout

```
In [95]:
```epochs = 40 # after this, it seems the network starts overfitting
batch_size = 8192
keep_probability = 0.8

Instead of training the neural network on all the CIFAR-10 batches of data, let's use a single batch. This should save time while you iterate on the model to get a better accuracy. Once the final validation accuracy is 50% or greater, run the model on all the data in the next section.

```
In [93]:
```"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL
"""
print('Checking the Training on a Single Batch...')
with tf.Session() as sess:
# Initializing the variables
sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer())
# Training cycle
for epoch in range(epochs):
batch_i = 1
for batch_features, batch_labels in helper.load_preprocess_training_batch(batch_i, batch_size):
train_neural_network(sess, optimizer, keep_probability, batch_features, batch_labels)
print('Epoch {:>2}, CIFAR-10 Batch {}: '.format(epoch + 1, batch_i), end='')
print_stats(sess, batch_features, batch_labels, cost, accuracy)

```
```

```
In [94]:
```"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL
"""
save_model_path = './image_classification'
print('Training...')
with tf.Session() as sess:
# Initializing the variables
sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer())
# Training cycle
for epoch in range(epochs):
# Loop over all batches
n_batches = 5
for batch_i in range(1, n_batches + 1):
for batch_features, batch_labels in helper.load_preprocess_training_batch(batch_i, batch_size):
train_neural_network(sess, optimizer, keep_probability, batch_features, batch_labels)
print('Epoch {:>2}, CIFAR-10 Batch {}: '.format(epoch + 1, batch_i), end='')
print_stats(sess, batch_features, batch_labels, cost, accuracy)
# Save Model
saver = tf.train.Saver()
save_path = saver.save(sess, save_model_path)

```
```

```
In [96]:
```"""
DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING IN THIS CELL
"""
%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'retina'
import tensorflow as tf
import pickle
import helper
import random
# Set batch size if not already set
try:
if batch_size:
pass
except NameError:
batch_size = 64
save_model_path = './image_classification'
n_samples = 4
top_n_predictions = 3
def test_model():
"""
Test the saved model against the test dataset
"""
test_features, test_labels = pickle.load(open('preprocess_test.p', mode='rb'))
loaded_graph = tf.Graph()
with tf.Session(graph=loaded_graph) as sess:
# Load model
loader = tf.train.import_meta_graph(save_model_path + '.meta')
loader.restore(sess, save_model_path)
# Get Tensors from loaded model
loaded_x = loaded_graph.get_tensor_by_name('x:0')
loaded_y = loaded_graph.get_tensor_by_name('y:0')
loaded_keep_prob = loaded_graph.get_tensor_by_name('keep_prob:0')
loaded_logits = loaded_graph.get_tensor_by_name('logits:0')
loaded_acc = loaded_graph.get_tensor_by_name('accuracy:0')
# Get accuracy in batches for memory limitations
test_batch_acc_total = 0
test_batch_count = 0
for test_feature_batch, test_label_batch in helper.batch_features_labels(test_features, test_labels, batch_size):
test_batch_acc_total += sess.run(
loaded_acc,
feed_dict={loaded_x: test_feature_batch, loaded_y: test_label_batch, loaded_keep_prob: 1.0})
test_batch_count += 1
print('Testing Accuracy: {}\n'.format(test_batch_acc_total/test_batch_count))
# Print Random Samples
random_test_features, random_test_labels = tuple(zip(*random.sample(list(zip(test_features, test_labels)), n_samples)))
random_test_predictions = sess.run(
tf.nn.top_k(tf.nn.softmax(loaded_logits), top_n_predictions),
feed_dict={loaded_x: random_test_features, loaded_y: random_test_labels, loaded_keep_prob: 1.0})
helper.display_image_predictions(random_test_features, random_test_labels, random_test_predictions)
test_model()

```
```

You might be wondering why you can't get an accuracy any higher. First things first, 50% isn't bad for a simple CNN. Pure guessing would get you 10% accuracy. However, you might notice people are getting scores well above 80%. That's because we haven't taught you all there is to know about neural networks. We still need to cover a few more techniques.

When submitting this project, make sure to run all the cells before saving the notebook. Save the notebook file as "dlnd_image_classification.ipynb" and save it as a HTML file under "File" -> "Download as". Include the "helper.py" and "problem_unittests.py" files in your submission.